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StringEscapeUtils.java

/* ====================================================================
 * The Apache Software License, Version 1.1
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2002-2003 The Apache Software Foundation.  All rights
 * reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
 *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
 *    distribution.
 *
 * 3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution, if
 *    any, must include the following acknowledgement:
 *       "This product includes software developed by the
 *        Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/)."
 *    Alternately, this acknowledgement may appear in the software itself,
 *    if and wherever such third-party acknowledgements normally appear.
 *
 * 4. The names "The Jakarta Project", "Commons", and "Apache Software
 *    Foundation" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived
 *    from this software without prior written permission. For written
 *    permission, please contact apache@apache.org.
 *
 * 5. Products derived from this software may not be called "Apache"
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 * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
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 * OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 * ====================================================================
 *
 * This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many
 * individuals on behalf of the Apache Software Foundation.  For more
 * information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see
 * <http://www.apache.org/>.
 */
package org.apache.commons.lang;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.Writer;

import org.apache.commons.lang.exception.NestableRuntimeException;

/**
 * <p>Escapes and unescapes <code>String</code>s for
 * Java, Java Script, HTML, XML, and SQL.</p>
 *
 * @author Apache Jakarta Turbine
 * @author GenerationJavaCore library
 * @author Purple Technology
 * @author <a href="mailto:bayard@generationjava.com">Henri Yandell</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:alex@purpletech.com">Alexander Day Chaffee</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:cybertiger@cyberiantiger.org">Antony Riley</a>
 * @author Helge Tesgaard
 * @author <a href="sean@boohai.com">Sean Brown</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:ggregory@seagullsw.com">Gary Gregory</a>
 * @author Phil Steitz
 * @author Pete Gieser
 * @since 2.0
 * @version $Id: StringEscapeUtils.java,v 1.25 2003/08/18 02:22:23 bayard Exp $
 */
00079 public class StringEscapeUtils {

    /**
     * <p><code>StringEscapeUtils</code> instances should NOT be constructed in
     * standard programming.</p>
     *
     * <p>Instead, the class should be used as:
     * <pre>StringEscapeUtils.escapeJava("foo");</pre></p>
     *
     * <p>This constructor is public to permit tools that require a JavaBean
     * instance to operate.</p>
     */
00091     public StringEscapeUtils() {
    }

    // Java and JavaScript
    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using Java String rules.</p>
     *
     * <p>Deals correctly with quotes and control-chars (tab, backslash, cr, ff, etc.) </p>
     *
     * <p>So a tab becomes the characters <code>'\\'</code> and
     * <code>'t'</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>The only difference between Java strings and JavaScript strings
     * is that in JavaScript, a single quote must be escaped.</p>
     *
     * <p>Example:
     * <pre>
     * input string: He didn't say, "Stop!"
     * output string: He didn't say, \"Stop!\"
     * </pre>
     * </p>
     *
     * @param str  String to escape values in, may be null
     * @return String with escaped values, <code>null</code> if null string input
     */
00117     public static String escapeJava(String str) {
        return escapeJavaStyleString(str, false);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using Java String rules to
     * a <code>Writer</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input has no effect.</p>
     * 
     * @see #escapeJava(java.lang.String)
     * @param out  Writer to write escaped string into
     * @param str  String to escape values in, may be null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the Writer is <code>null</code>
     * @throws IOException if error occurs on undelying Writer
     */
00133     public static void escapeJava(Writer out, String str) throws IOException {
        escapeJavaStyleString(out, str, false);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using JavaScript String rules.</p>
     * <p>Escapes any values it finds into their JavaScript String form.
     * Deals correctly with quotes and control-chars (tab, backslash, cr, ff, etc.) </p>
     *
     * <p>So a tab becomes the characters <code>'\\'</code> and
     * <code>'t'</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>The only difference between Java strings and JavaScript strings
     * is that in JavaScript, a single quote must be escaped.</p>
     *
     * <p>Example:
     * <pre>
     * input string: He didn't say, "Stop!"
     * output string: He didn\'t say, \"Stop!\"
     * </pre>
     * </p>
     *
     * @param str  String to escape values in, may be null
     * @return String with escaped values, <code>null</code> if null string input
     */
00158     public static String escapeJavaScript(String str) {
        return escapeJavaStyleString(str, true);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using JavaScript String rules
     * to a <code>Writer</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input has no effect.</p>
     * 
     * @see #escapeJavaScript(java.lang.String)
     * @param out  Writer to write escaped string into
     * @param str  String to escape values in, may be null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the Writer is <code>null</code>
     * @throws IOException if error occurs on undelying Writer
     **/
00174     public static void escapeJavaScript(Writer out, String str) throws IOException {
        escapeJavaStyleString(out, str, true);
    }

    private static String escapeJavaStyleString(String str, boolean escapeSingleQuotes) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        try {
            StringPrintWriter writer = new StringPrintWriter(str.length() * 2);
            escapeJavaStyleString(writer, str, escapeSingleQuotes);
            return writer.getString();
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
            // this should never ever happen while writing to a StringWriter
            ioe.printStackTrace();
            return null;
        }
    }

    private static void escapeJavaStyleString(Writer out, String str, boolean escapeSingleQuote) throws IOException {
        if (out == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("The Writer must not be null");
        }
        if (str == null) {
            return;
        }
        int sz;
        sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            char ch = str.charAt(i);

            // handle unicode
            if (ch > 0xfff) {
                out.write("\\u" + hex(ch));
            } else if (ch > 0xff) {
                out.write("\\u0" + hex(ch));
            } else if (ch > 0x7f) {
                out.write("\\u00" + hex(ch));
            } else if (ch < 32) {
                switch (ch) {
                    case '\b':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('b');
                        break;
                    case '\n':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('n');
                        break;
                    case '\t':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('t');
                        break;
                    case '\f':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('f');
                        break;
                    case '\r':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('r');
                        break;
                    default :
                        if (ch > 0xf) {
                            out.write("\\u00" + hex(ch));
                        } else {
                            out.write("\\u000" + hex(ch));
                        }
                        break;
                }
            } else {
                switch (ch) {
                    case '\'':
                        if (escapeSingleQuote) out.write('\\');
                        out.write('\'');
                        break;
                    case '"':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('"');
                        break;
                    case '\\':
                        out.write('\\');
                        out.write('\\');
                        break;
                    default :
                        out.write(ch);
                        break;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Returns an upper case hexadecimal <code>String</code> for the given
     * character.</p>
     * 
     * @param ch The character to convert.
     * @return An upper case hexadecimal <code>String</code>
     */
00271     private static String hex(char ch) {
        return Integer.toHexString(ch).toUpperCase();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes any Java literals found in the <code>String</code>.
     * For example, it will turn a sequence of <code>'\'</code> and
     * <code>'n'</code> into a newline character, unless the <code>'\'</code>
     * is preceded by another <code>'\'</code>.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @return a new unescaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     */
00284     public static String unescapeJava(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        try {
            StringPrintWriter writer = new StringPrintWriter(str.length());
            unescapeJava(writer, str);
            return writer.getString();
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
            // this should never ever happen while writing to a StringWriter
            ioe.printStackTrace();
            return null;
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes any Java literals found in the <code>String</code> to a
     * <code>Writer</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example, it will turn a sequence of <code>'\'</code> and
     * <code>'n'</code> into a newline character, unless the <code>'\'</code>
     * is preceded by another <code>'\'</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input has no effect.</p>
     * 
     * @param out  the <code>Writer</code> used to output unescaped characters
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the Writer is <code>null</code>
     * @throws IOException if error occurs on undelying Writer
     */
00314     public static void unescapeJava(Writer out, String str) throws IOException {
        if (out == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("The Writer must not be null");
        }
        if (str == null) {
            return;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        StringBuffer unicode = new StringBuffer(4);
        boolean hadSlash = false;
        boolean inUnicode = false;
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            char ch = str.charAt(i);
            if (inUnicode) {
                // if in unicode, then we're reading unicode
                // values in somehow
                unicode.append(ch);
                if (unicode.length() == 4) {
                    // unicode now contains the four hex digits
                    // which represents our unicode chacater
                    try {
                        int value = Integer.parseInt(unicode.toString(), 16);
                        out.write((char) value);
                        unicode.setLength(0);
                        inUnicode = false;
                        hadSlash = false;
                    } catch (NumberFormatException nfe) {
                        throw new NestableRuntimeException("Unable to parse unicode value: " + unicode, nfe);
                    }
                }
                continue;
            }
            if (hadSlash) {
                // handle an escaped value
                hadSlash = false;
                switch (ch) {
                    case '\\':
                        out.write('\\');
                        break;
                    case '\'':
                        out.write('\'');
                        break;
                    case '\"':
                        out.write('"');
                        break;
                    case 'r':
                        out.write('\r');
                        break;
                    case 'f':
                        out.write('\f');
                        break;
                    case 't':
                        out.write('\t');
                        break;
                    case 'n':
                        out.write('\n');
                        break;
                    case 'b':
                        out.write('\b');
                        break;
                    case 'u':
                        {
                            // uh-oh, we're in unicode country....
                            inUnicode = true;
                            break;
                        }
                    default :
                        out.write(ch);
                        break;
                }
                continue;
            } else if (ch == '\\') {
                hadSlash = true;
                continue;
            }
            out.write(ch);
        }
        if (hadSlash) {
            // then we're in the weird case of a \ at the end of the
            // string, let's output it anyway.
            out.write('\\');
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes any JavaScript literals found in the <code>String</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example, it will turn a sequence of <code>'\'</code> and <code>'n'</code>
     * into a newline character, unless the <code>'\'</code> is preceded by another
     * <code>'\'</code>.</p>
     *
     * @see #unescapeJava(String)
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @return A new unescaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     */
00409     public static String unescapeJavaScript(String str) {
        return unescapeJava(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes any JavaScript literals found in the <code>String</code> to a
     * <code>Writer</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example, it will turn a sequence of <code>'\'</code> and <code>'n'</code>
     * into a newline character, unless the <code>'\'</code> is preceded by another
     * <code>'\'</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input has no effect.</p>
     * 
     * @see #unescapeJava(Writer,String)
     * @param out  the <code>Writer</code> used to output unescaped characters
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the Writer is <code>null</code>
     * @throws IOException if error occurs on undelying Writer
     */
00429     public static void unescapeJavaScript(Writer out, String str) throws IOException {
        unescapeJava(out, str);
    }

    // HTML and XML
    //--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using HTML entities.</p>
     *
     * <p>
     * For example: <tt>"bread" & "butter"</tt> => <tt>&amp;quot;bread&amp;quot; &amp;amp; &amp;quot;butter&amp;quot;</tt>.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>Supports all known HTML 4.0 entities, including funky accents.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to escape, may be null
     * @return a new escaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * 
     * @see #unescapeHtml(String)
     * @see </br><a href="http://hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey/reference/special_characters/">ISO Entities</a>
     * @see </br><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html32#latin1">HTML 3.2 Character Entities for ISO Latin-1</a>
     * @see </br><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/entities.html">HTML 4.0 Character entity references</a>
     * @see </br><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/charset.html#h-5.3">HTML 4.01 Character References</a>
     * @see </br><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/charset.html#code-position">HTML 4.01 Code positions</a>
     **/
00454     public static String escapeHtml(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        //todo: add a version that takes a Writer
        //todo: rewrite underlying method to use a Writer instead of a StringBuffer
        return Entities.HTML40.escape(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes a string containing entity escapes to a string
     * containing the actual Unicode characters corresponding to the
     * escapes. Supports HTML 4.0 entities.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example, the string "&amp;lt;Fran&amp;ccedil;ais&amp;gt;"
     * will become "&lt;Fran&ccedil;ais&gt;"</p>
     *
     * <p>If an entity is unrecognized, it is left alone, and inserted
     * verbatim into the result string. e.g. "&amp;gt;&amp;zzzz;x" will
     * become "&gt;&amp;zzzz;x".</p>
     *
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @return a new unescaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * @see #escapeHtml(String)
     **/
00479     public static String unescapeHtml(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return Entities.HTML40.unescape(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> using XML entities.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example: <tt>"bread" & "butter"</tt> =>
     * <tt>&amp;quot;bread&amp;quot; &amp;amp; &amp;quot;butter&amp;quot;</tt>.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>Supports only the four basic XML entities (gt, lt, quot, amp).
     * Does not support DTDs or external entities.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to escape, may be null
     * @return a new escaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * @see #unescapeXml(java.lang.String)
     **/
00500     public static String escapeXml(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return Entities.XML.escape(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Unescapes a string containing XML entity escapes to a string
     * containing the actual Unicode characters corresponding to the
     * escapes.</p>
     *
     * <p>Supports only the four basic XML entities (gt, lt, quot, amp).
     * Does not support DTDs or external entities.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the <code>String</code> to unescape, may be null
     * @return a new unescaped <code>String</code>, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * @see #escapeXml(String)
     **/
00519     public static String unescapeXml(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return Entities.XML.unescape(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Escapes the characters in a <code>String</code> to be suitable to pass to
     * an SQL query.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example,
     * <pre>statement.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM MOVIES WHERE TITLE='" + 
     *   StringEscapeUtils.escapeSql("McHale's Navy") + 
     *   "'");</pre>
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>At present, this method only turns single-quotes into doubled single-quotes
     * (<code>"McHale's Navy"</code> => <code>"McHale''s Navy"</code>). It does not
     * handle the cases of percent (%) or underscore (_) for use in LIKE clauses.</p>
     *
     * see http://www.jguru.com/faq/view.jsp?EID=8881
     * @param str  the string to escape, may be null
     * @return a new String, escaped for SQL, <code>null</code> if null string input
     */
00544     public static String escapeSql(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return StringUtils.replace(str, "'", "''");
    }

}


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