Logo Search packages:      
Sourcecode: libcommons-lang-java version File versions  Download package

StringUtils.java

/* ====================================================================
 * The Apache Software License, Version 1.1
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2002-2003 The Apache Software Foundation.  All rights
 * reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
 *    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
 *    distribution.
 *
 * 3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution, if
 *    any, must include the following acknowledgement:
 *       "This product includes software developed by the
 *        Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/)."
 *    Alternately, this acknowledgement may appear in the software itself,
 *    if and wherever such third-party acknowledgements normally appear.
 *
 * 4. The names "The Jakarta Project", "Commons", and "Apache Software
 *    Foundation" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived
 *    from this software without prior written permission. For written
 *    permission, please contact apache@apache.org.
 *
 * 5. Products derived from this software may not be called "Apache"
 *    nor may "Apache" appear in their names without prior written
 *    permission of the Apache Software Foundation.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
 * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
 * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
 * DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE APACHE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION OR
 * ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
 * SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
 * USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
 * ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
 * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT
 * OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 * ====================================================================
 *
 * This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many
 * individuals on behalf of the Apache Software Foundation.  For more
 * information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see
 * <http://www.apache.org/>.
 */
package org.apache.commons.lang;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;

/**
 * <p>Operations on {@link java.lang.String} that are 
 * <code>null</code> safe.</p>
 * 
 * <ul>
 *  <li><b>IsEmpty/IsBlank</b>
 *      - checks if a String contains text</li>
 *  <li><b>Trim/Strip</b>
 *      - removes leading and trailing whitespace</li>
 *  <li><b>Equals</b>
 *      - compares two strings null-safe</li>
 *  <li><b>IndexOf/LastIndexOf/Contains</b>
 *      - null-safe index-of checks
 *  <li><b>IndexOfAny/LastIndexOfAny/IndexOfAnyBut/LastIndexOfAnyBut</b>
 *      - index-of any of a set of Strings</li>
 *  <li><b>ContainsOnly/ContainsNone</b>
 *      - does String contains only/none of these characters</li>
 *  <li><b>Substring/Left/Right/Mid</b>
 *      - null-safe substring extractions</li>
 *  <li><b>SubstringBefore/SubstringAfter/SubstringBetween</b>
 *      - substring extraction relative to other strings</li>
 *  <li><b>Split/Join</b>
 *      - splits a String into an array of substrings and vice versa</li>
 *  <li><b>Replace/Delete/Overlay</b>
 *      - Searches a String and replaces one String with another</li>
 *  <li><b>Chomp/Chop</b>
 *      - removes the last part of a String</li>
 *  <li><b>LeftPad/RightPad/Center/Repeat</b>
 *      - pads a String</li>
 *  <li><b>UpperCase/LowerCase/SwapCase/Capitalize/Uncapitalize</b>
 *      - changes the case of a String</li>
 *  <li><b>CountMatches</b>
 *      - counts the number of occurrances of one String in another</li>
 *  <li><b>IsAlpha/IsNumeric/IsWhitespace</b>
 *      - checks the characters in a String</li>
 *  <li><b>DefaultString</b>
 *      - protects against a null input String</li>
 *  <li><b>Reverse/ReverseDelimited</b>
 *      - reverses a String</li>
 *  <li><b>Abbreviate</b>
 *      - abbreviates a string using ellipsis</li>
 *  <li><b>Difference</b>
 *      - compares two Strings and reports on their differences</li>
 *  <li><b>LevensteinDistance</b>
 *      - the number of changes needed to change one String into another</li>
 * </ul>
 *
 * <p>The <code>StringUtils</code> class defines certain words related to
 * String handling.</p>
 * 
 * <ul>
 *  <li>null - <code>null</code></li>
 *  <li>empty - a zero-length string (<code>""</code>)</li>
 *  <li>space - the space character (<code>' '</code>, char 32)</li>
 *  <li>whitespace - the characters defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}</li>
 *  <li>trim - the characters &lt;= 32 as in {@link String#trim()}</li>
 * </ul>
 * 
 * <p><code>StringUtils</code> handles <code>null</code> input Strings quietly.
 * That is to say that a <code>null</code> input will return <code>null</code>.
 * Where a <code>boolean</code> or <code>int</code> is being returned
 * details vary by method.</p>
 * 
 * <p>A side effect of the <code>null</code> handling is that a 
 * <code>NullPointerException</code> should be considered a bug in
 * <code>StringUtils</code> (except for deprecated methods).</p>
 * 
 * <p>Methods in this class give sample code to explain their operation.
 * The symbol <code>*</code> is used to indicate any input including <code>null</code>.</p>
 *
 * @see java.lang.String
 * @author <a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/turbine/">Apache Jakarta Turbine</a>
 * @author GenerationJavaCore
 * @author <a href="mailto:jon@latchkey.com">Jon S. Stevens</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:dlr@finemaltcoding.com">Daniel Rall</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:gcoladonato@yahoo.com">Greg Coladonato</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:bayard@generationjava.com">Henri Yandell</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:ed@apache.org">Ed Korthof</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:rand_mcneely@yahoo.com">Rand McNeely</a>
 * @author Stephen Colebourne
 * @author <a href="mailto:fredrik@westermarck.com">Fredrik Westermarck</a>
 * @author Holger Krauth
 * @author <a href="mailto:alex@purpletech.com">Alexander Day Chaffee</a>
 * @author <a href="mailto:hps@intermeta.de">Henning P. Schmiedehausen</a>
 * @author Arun Mammen Thomas
 * @author Gary Gregory
 * @author Phil Steitz
 * @since 1.0
 * @version $Id: StringUtils.java,v 1.107 2003/08/23 10:39:20 scolebourne Exp $
 */
00150 public class StringUtils {
    // Performance testing notes (JDK 1.4, Jul03, scolebourne)
    // Whitespace:
    // Character.isWhitespace() is faster than WHITESPACE.indexOf()
    // where WHITESPACE is a string of all whitespace characters
    // 
    // Character access:
    // String.charAt(n) versus toCharArray(), then array[n]
    // String.charAt(n) is about 15% worse for a 10K string
    // They are about equal for a length 50 string
    // String.charAt(n) is about 4 times better for a length 3 string
    // String.charAt(n) is best bet overall
    //
    // Append:
    // String.concat about twice as fast as StringBuffer.append
    // (not sure who tested this)
    
    /**
     * The empty String <code>""</code>.
     * @since 2.0
     */
00171     public static final String EMPTY = "";
    
    /**
     * <p>The maximum size to which the padding constant(s) can expand.</p>
     */
00176     private static final int PAD_LIMIT = 8192;

    /**
     * <p>An array of <code>String</code>s used for padding.</p>
     *
     * <p>Used for efficient space padding. The length of each String expands as needed.</p>
     */
00183     private static final String[] PADDING = new String[Character.MAX_VALUE];
    
    static {
        // space padding is most common, start with 64 chars
        PADDING[32] = "                                                                ";
    }

    /**
     * <p><code>StringUtils</code> instances should NOT be constructed in
     * standard programming. Instead, the class should be used as
     * <code>StringUtils.trim(" foo ");</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>This constructor is public to permit tools that require a JavaBean
     * instance to operate.</p>
     */
00198     public StringUtils() {
    }

    // Empty checks
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Checks if a String is empty ("") or null.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isEmpty(null)      = true
     * StringUtils.isEmpty("")        = true
     * StringUtils.isEmpty(" ")       = false
     * StringUtils.isEmpty("bob")     = false
     * StringUtils.isEmpty("  bob  ") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * <p>NOTE: This method changed in Lang version 2.0.
     * It no longer trims the String.
     * That functionality is available in isBlank().</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is empty or null
     */
00221     public static boolean isEmpty(String str) {
        return (str == null || str.length() == 0);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if a String is not empty ("") and not null.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isNotEmpty(null)      = false
     * StringUtils.isNotEmpty("")        = false
     * StringUtils.isNotEmpty(" ")       = true
     * StringUtils.isNotEmpty("bob")     = true
     * StringUtils.isNotEmpty("  bob  ") = true
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is not empty and not null
     */
00239     public static boolean isNotEmpty(String str) {
        return (str != null && str.length() > 0);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if a String is whitespace, empty ("") or null.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isBlank(null)      = true
     * StringUtils.isBlank("")        = true
     * StringUtils.isBlank(" ")       = true
     * StringUtils.isBlank("bob")     = false
     * StringUtils.isBlank("  bob  ") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is null, empty or whitespace
     * @since 2.0
     */
00258     public static boolean isBlank(String str) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return true;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < strLen; i++) {
            if ((Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(i)) == false) ) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if a String is not empty (""), not null and not whitespace only.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isNotBlank(null)      = false
     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("")        = false
     * StringUtils.isNotBlank(" ")       = false
     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("bob")     = true
     * StringUtils.isNotBlank("  bob  ") = true
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the String is 
     *  not empty and not null and not whitespace
     * @since 2.0
     */
00287     public static boolean isNotBlank(String str) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return false;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < strLen; i++) {
            if ((Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(i)) == false) ) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    // Trim
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Removes control characters (char &lt;= 32) from both
     * ends of this String, handling <code>null</code> by returning
     * an empty String ("").</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.clean(null)          = ""
     * StringUtils.clean("")            = ""
     * StringUtils.clean("abc")         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.clean("    abc    ") = "abc"
     * StringUtils.clean("     ")       = ""
     * </pre>
     *
     * @see java.lang.String#trim()
     * @param str  the String to clean, may be null
     * @return the trimmed text, never <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use the clearer named {@link #trimToEmpty(String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
00321     public static String clean(String str) {
        return (str == null ? EMPTY : str.trim());
    }

    /**
     * <p>Removes control characters (char &lt;= 32) from both
     * ends of this String, handling <code>null</code> by returning
     * <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <p>The String is trimmed using {@link String#trim()}.
     * Trim removes start and end characters &lt;= 32.
     * To strip whitespace use {@link #strip(String)}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>To trim your choice of characters, use the
     * {@link #strip(String, String)} methods.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.trim(null)          = null
     * StringUtils.trim("")            = ""
     * StringUtils.trim("     ")       = ""
     * StringUtils.trim("abc")         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.trim("    abc    ") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to be trimmed, may be null
     * @return the trimmed string, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
00348     public static String trim(String str) {
        return (str == null ? null : str.trim());
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Removes control characters (char &lt;= 32) from both  
     * ends of this String returning <code>null</code> if the String is 
     * empty ("") after the trim or if it is <code>null</code>.
     * 
     * <p>The String is trimmed using {@link String#trim()}.
     * Trim removes start and end characters &lt;= 32.
     * To strip whitespace use {@link #stripToNull(String)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.trimToNull(null)          = null
     * StringUtils.trimToNull("")            = null
     * StringUtils.trimToNull("     ")       = null
     * StringUtils.trimToNull("abc")         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.trimToNull("    abc    ") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to be trimmed, may be null
     * @return the trimmed String, 
     *  <code>null</code> if only chars &lt;= 32, empty or null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00374     public static String trimToNull(String str) {
        String ts = trim(str);
        return (ts == null || ts.length() == 0 ? null : ts);
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Removes control characters (char &lt;= 32) from both 
     * ends of this String returning an empty String ("") if the String
     * is empty ("") after the trim or if it is <code>null</code>.
     * 
     * <p>The String is trimmed using {@link String#trim()}.
     * Trim removes start and end characters &lt;= 32.
     * To strip whitespace use {@link #stripToEmpty(String)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.trimToEmpty(null)          = ""
     * StringUtils.trimToEmpty("")            = ""
     * StringUtils.trimToEmpty("     ")       = ""
     * StringUtils.trimToEmpty("abc")         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.trimToEmpty("    abc    ") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to be trimmed, may be null
     * @return the trimmed String, or an empty String if <code>null</code> input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00400     public static String trimToEmpty(String str) {
        return (str == null ? EMPTY : str.trim());
    }
    
    // Stripping
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Strips whitespace from the start and end of a String.</p>
     * 
     * <p>This is similar to {@link #trim(String)} but removes whitespace.
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.strip(null)     = null
     * StringUtils.strip("")       = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("   ")    = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("abc")    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("  abc")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("abc  ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" abc ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" ab c ") = "ab c"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to remove whitespace from, may be null
     * @return the stripped String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
00428     public static String strip(String str) {
        return strip(str, null);
    }
    
    /** 
     * <p>Strips whitespace from the start and end of a String  returning
     * <code>null</code> if the String is empty ("") after the strip.</p>
     * 
     * <p>This is similar to {@link #trimToNull(String)} but removes whitespace.
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.strip(null)     = null
     * StringUtils.strip("")       = null
     * StringUtils.strip("   ")    = null
     * StringUtils.strip("abc")    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("  abc")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("abc  ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" abc ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" ab c ") = "ab c"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to be stripped, may be null
     * @return the stripped String, 
     *  <code>null</code> if whitespace, empty or null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00455     public static String stripToNull(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        str = strip(str, null);
        return (str.length() == 0 ? null : str);
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Strips whitespace from the start and end of a String  returning
     * an empty String if <code>null</code> input.</p>
     * 
     * <p>This is similar to {@link #trimToEmpty(String)} but removes whitespace.
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.strip(null)     = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("")       = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("   ")    = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("abc")    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("  abc")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("abc  ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" abc ")  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" ab c ") = "ab c"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to be stripped, may be null
     * @return the trimmed String, or an empty String if <code>null</code> input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00485     public static String stripToEmpty(String str) {
        return (str == null ? EMPTY : strip(str, null));
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Strips any of a set of characters from the start and end of a String.
     * This is similar to {@link String#trim()} but allows the characters
     * to be stripped to be controlled.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * An empty string ("") input returns the empty string.</p>
     * 
     * <p>If the stripChars String is <code>null</code>, whitespace is
     * stripped as defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.
     * Alternatively use {@link #strip(String)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.strip(null, *)          = null
     * StringUtils.strip("", *)            = ""
     * StringUtils.strip("abc", null)      = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("  abc", null)    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("abc  ", null)    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip(" abc ", null)    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.strip("  abcyx", "xyz") = "  abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to remove characters from, may be null
     * @param stripChars  the characters to remove, null treated as whitespace
     * @return the stripped String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
00515     public static String strip(String str, String stripChars) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        str = stripStart(str, stripChars);
        return stripEnd(str, stripChars);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Strips any of a set of characters from the start of a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * An empty string ("") input returns the empty string.</p>
     * 
     * <p>If the stripChars String is <code>null</code>, whitespace is
     * stripped as defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.stripStart(null, *)          = null
     * StringUtils.stripStart("", *)            = ""
     * StringUtils.stripStart("abc", "")        = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripStart("abc", null)      = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripStart("  abc", null)    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripStart("abc  ", null)    = "abc  "
     * StringUtils.stripStart(" abc ", null)    = "abc "
     * StringUtils.stripStart("yxabc  ", "xyz") = "abc  "
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to remove characters from, may be null
     * @param stripChars  the characters to remove, null treated as whitespace
     * @return the stripped String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
00547     public static String stripStart(String str, String stripChars) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        int start = 0;
        if (stripChars == null) {
            while ((start != strLen) && Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(start))) {
                start++;
            }
        } else if (stripChars.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        } else {
            while ((start != strLen) && (stripChars.indexOf(str.charAt(start)) != -1)) {
                start++;
            }
        }
        return str.substring(start);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Strips any of a set of characters from the end of a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * An empty string ("") input returns the empty string.</p>
     * 
     * <p>If the stripChars String is <code>null</code>, whitespace is
     * stripped as defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.stripEnd(null, *)          = null
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("", *)            = ""
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("abc", "")        = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("abc", null)      = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("  abc", null)    = "  abc"
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("abc  ", null)    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.stripEnd(" abc ", null)    = " abc"
     * StringUtils.stripEnd("  abcyx", "xyz") = "  abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to remove characters from, may be null
     * @param stripChars  the characters to remove, null treated as whitespace
     * @return the stripped String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
00591     public static String stripEnd(String str, String stripChars) {
        int end;
        if (str == null || (end = str.length()) == 0) {
            return str;
        }
 
        if (stripChars == null) {
            while ((end != 0) && Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(end - 1))) {
                end--;
            }
        } else if (stripChars.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        } else {
            while ((end != 0) && (stripChars.indexOf(str.charAt(end - 1)) != -1)) {
                end--;
            }
        }
        return str.substring(0, end);
    }

    // StripAll
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Strips whitespace from the start and end of every String in an array.
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A new array is returned each time, except for length zero.
     * A <code>null</code> array will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty array will return itself.
     * A <code>null</code> array entry will be ignored.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.stripAll(null)             = null
     * StringUtils.stripAll([])               = []
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["abc", "  abc"]) = ["abc", "abc"]
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["abc  ", null])  = ["abc", null]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param strs  the array to remove whitespace from, may be null
     * @return the stripped Strings, <code>null</code> if null array input
     */
00632     public static String[] stripAll(String[] strs) {
        return stripAll(strs, null);
    }
 
    /**
     * <p>Strips any of a set of characters from the start and end of every
     * String in an array.</p>
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A new array is returned each time, except for length zero.
     * A <code>null</code> array will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty array will return itself.
     * A <code>null</code> array entry will be ignored.
     * A <code>null</code> stripChars will strip whitespace as defined by
     * {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.stripAll(null, *)                = null
     * StringUtils.stripAll([], *)                  = []
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["abc", "  abc"], null) = ["abc", "abc"]
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["abc  ", null], null)  = ["abc", null]
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["abc  ", null], "yz")  = ["abc  ", null]
     * StringUtils.stripAll(["yabcz", null], "yz")  = ["abc", null]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param strs  the array to remove characters from, may be null
     * @param stripChars  the characters to remove, null treated as whitespace
     * @return the stripped Strings, <code>null</code> if null array input
     */
00661     public static String[] stripAll(String[] strs, String stripChars) {
        int strsLen;
        if (strs == null || (strsLen = strs.length) == 0) {
            return strs;
        }
        String[] newArr = new String[strsLen];
        for (int i = 0; i < strsLen; i++) {
            newArr[i] = strip(strs[i], stripChars);
        }
        return newArr;
    }   

    // Equals
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Compares two Strings, returning <code>true</code> if they are equal.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code>s are handled without exceptions. Two <code>null</code>
     * references are considered to be equal. The comparison is case sensitive.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.equals(null, null)   = true
     * StringUtils.equals(null, "abc")  = false
     * StringUtils.equals("abc", null)  = false
     * StringUtils.equals("abc", "abc") = true
     * StringUtils.equals("abc", "ABC") = false
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @see java.lang.String#equals(Object)
     * @param str1  the first String, may be null
     * @param str2  the second String, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the Strings are equal, case sensitive, or
     *  both <code>null</code>
     */
00695     public static boolean equals(String str1, String str2) {
        return (str1 == null ? str2 == null : str1.equals(str2));
    }

    /**
     * <p>Compares two Strings, returning <code>true</code> if they are equal ignoring
     * the case.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code>s are handled without exceptions. Two <code>null</code>
     * references are considered equal. Comparison is case insensitive.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(null, null)   = true
     * StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(null, "abc")  = false
     * StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase("abc", null)  = false
     * StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase("abc", "abc") = true
     * StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase("abc", "ABC") = true
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @see java.lang.String#equalsIgnoreCase(String)
     * @param str1  the first String, may be null
     * @param str2  the second String, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if the Strings are equal, case insensitive, or
     *  both <code>null</code>
     */
00720     public static boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String str1, String str2) {
        return (str1 == null ? str2 == null : str1.equalsIgnoreCase(str2));
    }

    // IndexOf
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Finds the first index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOf(null, *)         = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("", *)           = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'a') = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'b') = 2
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to find
     * @return the first index of the search character, 
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00745     public static int indexOf(String str, char searchChar) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.indexOf(searchChar);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the first index within a String from a start position,
     * handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int, int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A negative start position is treated as zero.
     * A start position greater than the string length returns <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOf(null, *, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("", *, *)            = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 0)  = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 3)  = 5
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 9)  = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', -1) = 2
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to find
     * @param startPos  the start position, negative treated as zero
     * @return the first index of the search character, 
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00777     public static int indexOf(String str, char searchChar, int startPos) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.indexOf(searchChar, startPos);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the first index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(String)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOf(null, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf(*, null)          = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("", "")           = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "a")  = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "b")  = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "ab") = 1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "")   = 0
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
     * @return the first index of the search String,
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00806     public static int indexOf(String str, String searchStr) {
        if (str == null || searchStr == null) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.indexOf(searchStr);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the first index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(String, int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A negative start position is treated as zero.
     * An empty ("") search String always matches.
     * A start position greater than the string length only matches
     * an empty search String.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOf(null, *, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf(*, null, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("", "", 0)           = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "a", 0)  = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 0)  = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "ab", 0) = 1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 3)  = 5
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 9)  = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "b", -1) = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOf("aabaabaa", "", 2)   = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOf("abc", "", 9)        = 3
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
     * @param startPos  the start position, negative treated as zero
     * @return the first index of the search String,
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00844     public static int indexOf(String str, String searchStr, int startPos) {
        if (str == null || searchStr == null) {
            return -1;
        }
        // JDK1.2/JDK1.3 have a bug, when startPos > str.length for "", hence
        if (searchStr.length() == 0 && startPos >= str.length()) {
            return str.length();
        }
        return str.indexOf(searchStr, startPos);
    }
    
    // LastIndexOf
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Finds the last index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#lastIndexOf(int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(null, *)         = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("", *)           = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'a') = 7
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b') = 5
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to find
     * @return the last index of the search character, 
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00876     public static int lastIndexOf(String str, char searchChar) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.lastIndexOf(searchChar);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the last index within a String from a start position,
     * handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#lastIndexOf(int, int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A negative start position returns <code>-1</code>.
     * A start position greater than the string length searches the whole string.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(null, *, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("", *,  *)           = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 8)  = 5
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 4)  = 2
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 0)  = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', 9)  = 5
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'b', -1) = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", 'a', 0)  = 0
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to find
     * @param startPos  the start position
     * @return the last index of the search character, 
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00910     public static int lastIndexOf(String str, char searchChar, int startPos) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.lastIndexOf(searchChar, startPos);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the last index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#lastIndexOf(String)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(null, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(*, null)          = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("", "")           = 0
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "a")  = 0
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "b")  = 2
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "ab") = 1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "")   = 8
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
     * @return the last index of the search String,
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00939     public static int lastIndexOf(String str, String searchStr) {
        if (str == null || searchStr == null) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.lastIndexOf(searchStr);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Finds the first index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#lastIndexOf(String, int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A negative start position returns <code>-1</code>.
     * An empty ("") search String always matches unless the start position is negative.
     * A start position greater than the string length searches the whole string.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(null, *, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf(*, null, *)          = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "a", 8)  = 7
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 8)  = 5
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "ab", 8) = 4
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 9)  = 5
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "b", -1) = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "a", 0)  = 0
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOf("aabaabaa", "b", 0)  = -1
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
     * @param startPos  the start position, negative treated as zero
     * @return the first index of the search String,
     *  -1 if no match or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
00974     public static int lastIndexOf(String str, String searchStr, int startPos) {
        if (str == null || searchStr == null) {
            return -1;
        }
        return str.lastIndexOf(searchStr, startPos);
    }
    
    // Contains
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Checks if String contains a search character, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String will return <code>false</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.contains(null, *)    = false
     * StringUtils.contains("", *)      = false
     * StringUtils.contains("abc", 'a') = true
     * StringUtils.contains("abc", 'z') = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to find
     * @return true if the String contains the search character, 
     *  false if not or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01002     public static boolean contains(String str, char searchChar) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return false;
        }
        return (str.indexOf(searchChar) >= 0);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Find the first index within a String, handling <code>null</code>.
     * This method uses {@link String#indexOf(int)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>false</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.contains(null, *)     = false
     * StringUtils.contains(*, null)     = false
     * StringUtils.contains("", "")      = true
     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "")   = true
     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "a")  = true
     * StringUtils.contains("abc", "z")  = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStr  the String to find, may be null
     * @return true if the String contains the search character, 
     *  false if not or <code>null</code> string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01030     public static boolean contains(String str, String searchStr) {
        if (str == null || searchStr == null) {
            return false;
        }
        return (str.indexOf(searchStr) >= 0);
    }
    
    // IndexOfAny chars
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Search a String to find the first index of any
     * character in the given set of characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> or zero length search array will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(null, *)                = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("", *)                  = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, null)                = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, [])                  = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx",['z','a']) = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx",['b','y']) = 3
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("aba", ['z'])           = -1
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChars  the chars to search for, may be null
     * @return the index of any of the chars, -1 if no match or null input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01061      public static int indexOfAny(String str, char[] searchChars) {
         if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || searchChars == null || searchChars.length == 0) {
             return -1;
         }
         for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i ++) {
             char ch = str.charAt(i);
             for (int j = 0; j < searchChars.length; j++) {
                 if (searchChars[j] == ch) {
                     return i;
                 }
             }
         }
         return -1;
     }

    /**
     * <p>Search a String to find the first index of any
     * character in the given set of characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> search string will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(null, *)            = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("", *)              = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, null)            = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, "")              = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", "za") = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", "by") = 3
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("aba","z")          = -1
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChars  the chars to search for, may be null
     * @return the index of any of the chars, -1 if no match or null input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01098     public static int indexOfAny(String str, String searchChars) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || searchChars == null || searchChars.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return indexOfAny(str, searchChars.toCharArray());
    }

    // IndexOfAnyBut chars
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Search a String to find the first index of any
     * character not in the given set of characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> or zero length search array will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(null, *)           = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("", *)             = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(*, null)           = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(*, [])             = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("zzabyycdxx",'za') = 3
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("zzabyycdxx", '')  = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("aba", 'ab')       = -1
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChars  the chars to search for, may be null
     * @return the index of any of the chars, -1 if no match or null input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01129      public static int indexOfAnyBut(String str, char[] searchChars) {
         if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || searchChars == null || searchChars.length == 0) {
             return -1;
         }
         outer: for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i ++) {
             char ch = str.charAt(i);
             for (int j = 0; j < searchChars.length; j++) {
                 if (searchChars[j] == ch) {
                     continue outer;
                 }
             }
             return i;
         }
         return -1;
     }

    /**
     * <p>Search a String to find the first index of any
     * character not in the given set of characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> search string will return <code>-1</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(null, *)            = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("", *)              = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(*, null)            = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut(*, "")              = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("zzabyycdxx", "za") = 3
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("zzabyycdxx", "")   = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAnyBut("aba","ab")         = -1
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchChars  the chars to search for, may be null
     * @return the index of any of the chars, -1 if no match or null input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01167     public static int indexOfAnyBut(String str, String searchChars) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || searchChars == null || searchChars.length() == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) {
            if (searchChars.indexOf(str.charAt(i)) < 0) {
                return i;
            }
        }
        return -1;
    }

    // ContainsOnly
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only certain characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>false</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> valid character array will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") always returns <code>true</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.containsOnly(null, *)       = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly(*, null)       = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("", *)         = true
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("ab", '')      = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("abab", 'abc') = true
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("ab1", 'abc')  = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("abz", 'abc')  = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param valid  an array of valid chars, may be null
     * @return true if it only contains valid chars and is non-null
     */
01202     public static boolean containsOnly(String str, char[] valid) {
        // All these pre-checks are to maintain API with an older version
        if ( (valid == null) || (str == null) ) {
            return false;
        }
        if (str.length() == 0) {
            return true;
        }
        if (valid.length == 0) {
            return false;
        }
        return indexOfAnyBut(str, valid) == -1;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only certain characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>false</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> valid character String will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") always returns <code>true</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.containsOnly(null, *)       = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly(*, null)       = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("", *)         = true
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("ab", "")      = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("abab", "abc") = true
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("ab1", "abc")  = false
     * StringUtils.containsOnly("abz", "abc")  = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param validChars  a String of valid chars, may be null
     * @return true if it only contains valid chars and is non-null
     * @since 2.0
     */
01238     public static boolean containsOnly(String str, String validChars) {
        if (str == null || validChars == null) {
            return false;
        }
        return containsOnly(str, validChars.toCharArray());
    }
    
    // ContainsNone
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Checks that the String does not contain certain characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>true</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> invalid character array will return <code>true</code>.
     * An empty String ("") always returns true.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.containsNone(null, *)       = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone(*, null)       = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("", *)         = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("ab", '')      = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("abab", 'xyz') = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("ab1", 'xyz')  = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("abz", 'xyz')  = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param invalidChars  an array of invalid chars, may be null
     * @return true if it contains none of the invalid chars, or is null
     * @since 2.0
     */
01269     public static boolean containsNone(String str, char[] invalidChars) {
        if (str == null || invalidChars == null) {
            return true;
        }
        int strSize = str.length();
        int validSize = invalidChars.length;
        for (int i = 0; i < strSize; i++) {
            char ch = str.charAt(i);
            for (int j = 0; j < validSize; j++) {
                if (invalidChars[j] == ch) {
                    return false;
                }
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks that the String does not contain certain characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>true</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> invalid character array will return <code>true</code>.
     * An empty String ("") always returns true.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.containsNone(null, *)       = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone(*, null)       = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("", *)         = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("ab", "")      = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("abab", "xyz") = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("ab1", "xyz")  = true
     * StringUtils.containsNone("abz", "xyz")  = false
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param invalidChars  a String of invalid chars, may be null
     * @return true if it contains none of the invalid chars, or is null
     * @since 2.0
     */
01308     public static boolean containsNone(String str, String invalidChars) {
        if (str == null || invalidChars == null) {
            return true;
        }
        return containsNone(str, invalidChars.toCharArray());
    }
    
    // IndexOfAny strings
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Find the first index of any of a set of potential substrings.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> or zero length search array will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> search array entry will be ignored, but a search
     * array containing "" will return <code>0</code> if <code>str</code> is not
     * null. This method uses {@link String#indexOf(String)}.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(null, *)                     = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, null)                     = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny(*, [])                       = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["ab","cd"])   = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["cd","ab"])   = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["mn","op"])   = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["zab","aby"]) = 1
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", [""])          = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("", [""])                    = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfAny("", ["a"])                   = -1
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStrs  the Strings to search for, may be null
     * @return the first index of any of the searchStrs in str, -1 if no match
     */
01343     public static int indexOfAny(String str, String[] searchStrs) {
        if ((str == null) || (searchStrs == null)) {
            return -1;
        }
        int sz = searchStrs.length;

        // String's can't have a MAX_VALUEth index.
        int ret = Integer.MAX_VALUE;

        int tmp = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            String search = searchStrs[i];
            if (search == null) {
                continue;
            }
            tmp = str.indexOf(search);
            if (tmp == -1) {
                continue;
            }

            if (tmp < ret) {
                ret = tmp;
            }
        }

        return (ret == Integer.MAX_VALUE) ? -1 : ret;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Find the latest index of any of a set of potential substrings.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> search array will return <code>-1</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> or zero length search array entry will be ignored,
     * but a search array containing "" will return the length of <code>str</code> 
     * if <code>str</code> is not null. This method uses {@link String#indexOf(String)}</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny(null, *)                   = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny(*, null)                   = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny(*, [])                     = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny(*, [null])                 = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["ab","cd"]) = 6
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["cd","ab"]) = 6
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["mn","op"]) = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["mn","op"]) = -1
     * StringUtils.lastIndexOfAny("zzabyycdxx", ["mn",""])   = 10
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param searchStrs  the Strings to search for, may be null
     * @return the last index of any of the Strings, -1 if no match
     */
01396     public static int lastIndexOfAny(String str, String[] searchStrs) {
        if ((str == null) || (searchStrs == null)) {
            return -1;
        }
        int sz = searchStrs.length;
        int ret = -1;
        int tmp = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            String search = searchStrs[i];
            if (search == null) {
                continue;
            }
            tmp = str.lastIndexOf(search);
            if (tmp > ret) {
                ret = tmp;
            }
        }
        return ret;
    }

    // Substring
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Gets a substring from the specified String avoiding exceptions.</p>
     *
     * <p>A negative start position can be used to start <code>n</code>
     * characters from the end of the String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> String will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") String will return "".</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substring(null, *)   = null
     * StringUtils.substring("", *)     = ""
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 0)  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 2)  = "c"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 4)  = ""
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", -2) = "bc"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", -4) = "abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to get the substring from, may be null
     * @param start  the position to start from, negative means
     *  count back from the end of the String by this many characters
     * @return substring from start position, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01442     public static String substring(String str, int start) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }

        // handle negatives, which means last n characters
        if (start < 0) {
            start = str.length() + start; // remember start is negative
        }

        if (start < 0) {
            start = 0;
        }
        if (start > str.length()) {
            return EMPTY;
        }

        return str.substring(start);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Gets a substring from the specified String avoiding exceptions.</p>
     *
     * <p>A negative start position can be used to start/end <code>n</code>
     * characters from the end of the String.</p>
     *
     * <p>The returned substring starts with the character in the <code>start</code>
     * position and ends before the <code>end</code> position. All postion counting is 
     * zero-based -- i.e., to start at the beginning of the string use 
     * <code>start = 0</code>. Negative start and end positions can be used to 
     * specify offsets relative to the end of the String.</p>
     *
     * <p>If <code>start</code> is not strictly to the left of <code>end</code>, ""
     * is returned.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substring(null, *, *)    = null
     * StringUtils.substring("", * ,  *)    = "";
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 0, 2)   = "ab"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 2, 0)   = ""
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 2, 4)   = "c"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 4, 6)   = ""
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", 2, 2)   = ""
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", -2, -1) = "b"
     * StringUtils.substring("abc", -4, 2)  = "ab"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to get the substring from, may be null
     * @param start  the position to start from, negative means
     *  count back from the end of the String by this many characters
     * @param end  the position to end at (exclusive), negative means
     *  count back from the end of the String by this many characters
     * @return substring from start position to end positon,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01497     public static String substring(String str, int start, int end) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }

        // handle negatives
        if (end < 0) {
            end = str.length() + end; // remember end is negative
        }
        if (start < 0) {
            start = str.length() + start; // remember start is negative
        }

        // check length next
        if (end > str.length()) {
            end = str.length();
        }

        // if start is greater than end, return ""
        if (start > end) {
            return EMPTY;
        }

        if (start < 0) {
            start = 0;
        }
        if (end < 0) {
            end = 0;
        }

        return str.substring(start, end);
    }

    // Left/Right/Mid
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Gets the leftmost <code>len</code> characters of a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>If <code>len</code> characters are not available, or the
     * String is <code>null</code>, the String will be returned without
     * an exception. An exception is thrown if len is negative.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.left(null, *)    = null
     * StringUtils.left(*, -ve)     = ""
     * StringUtils.left("", *)      = ""
     * StringUtils.left("abc", 0)   = ""
     * StringUtils.left("abc", 2)   = "ab"
     * StringUtils.left("abc", 4)   = "abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to get the leftmost characters from, may be null
     * @param len  the length of the required String, must be zero or positive
     * @return the leftmost characters, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01552     public static String left(String str, int len) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (len < 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        if (str.length() <= len) {
            return str;
        } else {
            return str.substring(0, len);
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets the rightmost <code>len</code> characters of a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>If <code>len</code> characters are not available, or the String
     * is <code>null</code>, the String will be returned without an
     * an exception. An exception is thrown if len is negative.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.right(null, *)    = null
     * StringUtils.right(*, -ve)     = ""
     * StringUtils.right("", *)      = ""
     * StringUtils.right("abc", 0)   = ""
     * StringUtils.right("abc", 2)   = "bc"
     * StringUtils.right("abc", 4)   = "abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to get the rightmost characters from, may be null
     * @param len  the length of the required String, must be zero or positive
     * @return the rightmost characters, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01586     public static String right(String str, int len) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (len < 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        if (str.length() <= len) {
            return str;
        } else {
            return str.substring(str.length() - len);
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets <code>len</code> characters from the middle of a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>If <code>len</code> characters are not available, the remainder
     * of the String will be returned without an exception. If the
     * String is <code>null</code>, <code>null</code> will be returned.
     * An exception is thrown if len is negative.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.mid(null, *, *)    = null
     * StringUtils.mid(*, *, -ve)     = ""
     * StringUtils.mid("", 0, *)      = ""
     * StringUtils.mid("abc", 0, 2)   = "ab"
     * StringUtils.mid("abc", 0, 4)   = "abc"
     * StringUtils.mid("abc", 2, 4)   = "c"
     * StringUtils.mid("abc", 4, 2)   = ""
     * StringUtils.mid("abc", -2, 2)  = "ab"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to get the characters from, may be null
     * @param pos  the position to start from, negative treated as zero
     * @param len  the length of the required String, must be zero or positive
     * @return the middle characters, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01624     public static String mid(String str, int pos, int len) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (len < 0 || pos > str.length()) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        if (pos < 0) {
            pos = 0;
        }
        if (str.length() <= (pos + len)) {
            return str.substring(pos);
        } else {
            return str.substring(pos, pos + len);
        }
    }

    // SubStringAfter/SubStringBefore
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Gets the substring before the first occurance of a separator.
     * The separator is not returned.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input will return the empty string.
     * A <code>null</code> separator will return the input string.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringBefore(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("", *)        = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abc", "a")   = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abcba", "b") = "a"
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abc", "c")   = "ab"
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abc", "d")   = "abc"
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abc", "")    = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBefore("abc", null)  = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to get a substring from, may be null
     * @param separator  the String to search for, may be null
     * @return the substring before the first occurance of the separator,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01668     public static String substringBefore(String str, String separator) {
        if (str == null || separator == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        if (separator.length() == 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        int pos = str.indexOf(separator);
        if (pos == -1) {
            return str;
        }
        return str.substring(0, pos);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets the substring after the first occurance of a separator.
     * The separator is not returned.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input will return the empty string.
     * A <code>null</code> separator will return the empty string if the
     * input string is not <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringAfter(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("", *)        = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfter(*, null)      = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("abc", "a")   = "bc"
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("abcba", "b") = "cba"
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("abc", "c")   = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("abc", "d")   = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfter("abc", "")    = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to get a substring from, may be null
     * @param separator  the String to search for, may be null
     * @return the substring after the first occurance of the separator,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01708     public static String substringAfter(String str, String separator) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        if (separator == null) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        int pos = str.indexOf(separator);
        if (pos == -1) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        return str.substring(pos + separator.length());
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets the substring before the last occurance of a separator.
     * The separator is not returned.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input will return the empty string.
     * An empty or <code>null</code> separator will return the input string.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("", *)        = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("abcba", "b") = "abc"
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("abc", "c")   = "ab"
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("a", "a")     = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("a", "z")     = "a"
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("a", null)    = "a"
     * StringUtils.substringBeforeLast("a", "")      = "a"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to get a substring from, may be null
     * @param separator  the String to search for, may be null
     * @return the substring before the last occurance of the separator,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01747     public static String substringBeforeLast(String str, String separator) {
        if (str == null || separator == null || str.length() == 0 || separator.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        int pos = str.lastIndexOf(separator);
        if (pos == -1) {
            return str;
        }
        return str.substring(0, pos);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets the substring after the last occurance of a separator.
     * The separator is not returned.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input will return <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input will return the empty string.
     * An empty or <code>null</code> separator will return the empty string if
     * the input string is not <code>null</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("", *)        = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast(*, "")        = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast(*, null)      = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("abc", "a")   = "bc"
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("abcba", "b") = "a"
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("abc", "c")   = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("a", "a")     = ""
     * StringUtils.substringAfterLast("a", "z")     = ""
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to get a substring from, may be null
     * @param separator  the String to search for, may be null
     * @return the substring after the last occurance of the separator,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01785     public static String substringAfterLast(String str, String separator) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        if (separator == null || separator.length() == 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        int pos = str.lastIndexOf(separator);
        if (pos == -1 || pos == (str.length() - separator.length())) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        return str.substring(pos + separator.length());
    }

    // Substring between
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Gets the String that is nested in between two instances of the
     * same String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> tag returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringBetween(null, *)            = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("", "")             = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("", "tag")          = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("tagabctag", null)  = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("tagabctag", "")    = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("tagabctag", "tag") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String containing the substring, may be null
     * @param tag  the String before and after the substring, may be null
     * @return the substring, <code>null</code> if no match
     * @since 2.0
     */
01822     public static String substringBetween(String str, String tag) {
        return substringBetween(str, tag, tag);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Gets the String that is nested in between two Strings.
     * Only the first match is returned.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> open/close returns <code>null</code> (no match).
     * An empty ("") open/close returns an empty string.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.substringBetween(null, *, *)          = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("", "", "")          = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("", "", "tag")       = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("", "tag", "tag")    = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("yabcz", null, null) = null
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("yabcz", "", "")     = ""
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("yabcz", "y", "z")   = "abc"
     * StringUtils.substringBetween("yabczyabcz", "y", "z")   = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String containing the substring, may be null
     * @param open  the String before the substring, may be null
     * @param close  the String after the substring, may be null
     * @return the substring, <code>null</code> if no match
     * @since 2.0
     */
01851     public static String substringBetween(String str, String open, String close) {
        if (str == null || open == null || close == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int start = str.indexOf(open);
        if (start != -1) {
            int end = str.indexOf(close, start + open.length());
            if (end != -1) {
                return str.substring(start + open.length(), end);
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    // Nested extraction
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Gets the String that is nested in between two instances of the
     * same String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> tag returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.getNestedString(null, *)            = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("", "")             = ""
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("", "tag")          = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("tagabctag", null)  = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("tagabctag", "")    = ""
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("tagabctag", "tag") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String containing nested-string, may be null
     * @param tag  the String before and after nested-string, may be null
     * @return the nested String, <code>null</code> if no match
     * @deprecated Use the better named {@link #substringBetween(String, String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
01889     public static String getNestedString(String str, String tag) {
        return substringBetween(str, tag, tag);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Gets the String that is nested in between two Strings.
     * Only the first match is returned.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> open/close returns <code>null</code> (no match).
     * An empty ("") open/close returns an empty string.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.getNestedString(null, *, *)          = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("", "", "")          = ""
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("", "", "tag")       = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("", "tag", "tag")    = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("yabcz", null, null) = null
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("yabcz", "", "")     = ""
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("yabcz", "y", "z")   = "abc"
     * StringUtils.getNestedString("yabczyabcz", "y", "z")   = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String containing nested-string, may be null
     * @param open  the String before nested-string, may be null
     * @param close  the String after nested-string, may be null
     * @return the nested String, <code>null</code> if no match
     * @deprecated Use the better named {@link #substringBetween(String, String, String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
01919     public static String getNestedString(String str, String open, String close) {
        return substringBetween(str, open, close);
    }

    // Splitting
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Splits the provided text into an array, using whitespace as the
     * separator.
     * Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array.
     * Adjacent separators are treated as one separator.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.split(null)       = null
     * StringUtils.split("")         = []
     * StringUtils.split("abc def")  = ["abc", "def"]
     * StringUtils.split("abc  def") = ["abc", "def"]
     * StringUtils.split(" abc ")    = ["abc"]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to parse, may be null
     * @return an array of parsed Strings, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
01946     public static String[] split(String str) {
        return split(str, null, -1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Splits the provided text into an array, separator specified.
     * This is an alternative to using StringTokenizer.</p>
     *
     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array.
     * Adjacent separators are treated as one separator.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.split(null, *)         = null
     * StringUtils.split("", *)           = []
     * StringUtils.split("a.b.c", '.')    = ["a", "b", "c"]
     * StringUtils.split("a..b.c", '.')   = ["a", "b", "c"]
     * StringUtils.split("a:b:c", '.')    = ["a:b:c"]
     * StringUtils.split("a\tb\nc", null) = ["a", "b", "c"]
     * StringUtils.split("a b c", ' ')    = ["a", "b", "c"]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to parse, may be null
     * @param separatorChar  the character used as the delimiter,
     *  <code>null</code> splits on whitespace
     * @return an array of parsed Strings, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
01975     public static String[] split(String str, char separatorChar) {
        // Performance tuned for 2.0 (JDK1.4)
        
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int len = str.length();
        if (len == 0) {
            return ArrayUtils.EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
        }
        List list = new ArrayList();
        int i =0, start = 0;
        boolean match = false;
        while (i < len) {
            if (str.charAt(i) == separatorChar) {
                if (match) {
                    list.add(str.substring(start, i));
                    match = false;
                }
                start = ++i;
                continue;
            }
            match = true;
            i++;
        }
        if (match) {
            list.add(str.substring(start, i));
        }
        return (String[]) list.toArray(new String[list.size()]);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Splits the provided text into an array, separators specified.
     * This is an alternative to using StringTokenizer.</p>
     *
     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array.
     * Adjacent separators are treated as one separator.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> separatorChars splits on whitespace.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.split(null, *)         = null
     * StringUtils.split("", *)           = []
     * StringUtils.split("abc def", null) = ["abc", "def"]
     * StringUtils.split("abc def", " ")  = ["abc", "def"]
     * StringUtils.split("abc  def", " ") = ["abc", "def"]
     * StringUtils.split("ab:cd:ef", ":") = ["ab", "cd", "ef"]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to parse, may be null
     * @param separatorChars  the characters used as the delimiters,
     *  <code>null</code> splits on whitespace
     * @return an array of parsed Strings, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02030     public static String[] split(String str, String separatorChars) {
        return split(str, separatorChars, -1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Splits the provided text into an array, separators specified.
     * This is an alternative to using StringTokenizer.</p>
     *
     * <p>The separator is not included in the returned String array.
     * Adjacent separators are treated as one separator.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A <code>null</code> separatorChars splits on whitespace.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.split(null, *, *)            = null
     * StringUtils.split("", *, *)              = []
     * StringUtils.split("ab de fg", null, 0)   = ["ab", "cd", "ef"]
     * StringUtils.split("ab   de fg", null, 0) = ["ab", "cd", "ef"]
     * StringUtils.split("ab:cd:ef", ":", 0)    = ["ab", "cd", "ef"]
     * StringUtils.split("ab:cd:ef", ":", 2)    = ["ab", "cdef"]
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to parse, may be null
     * @param separatorChars  the characters used as the delimiters,
     *  <code>null</code> splits on whitespace
     * @param max  the maximum number of elements to include in the
     *  array. A zero or negative value implies no limit
     * @return an array of parsed Strings, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02060     public static String[] split(String str, String separatorChars, int max) {
        // Performance tuned for 2.0 (JDK1.4)
        // Direct code is quicker than StringTokenizer.
        // Also, StringTokenizer uses isSpace() not isWhitespace()
        
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int len = str.length();
        if (len == 0) {
            return ArrayUtils.EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
        }
        List list = new ArrayList();
        int sizePlus1 = 1;
        int i =0, start = 0;
        boolean match = false;
        if (separatorChars == null) {
            // Null separator means use whitespace
            while (i < len) {
                if (Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(i))) {
                    if (match) {
                        if (sizePlus1++ == max) {
                            i = len;
                        }
                        list.add(str.substring(start, i));
                        match = false;
                    }
                    start = ++i;
                    continue;
                }
                match = true;
                i++;
            }
        } else if (separatorChars.length() == 1) {
            // Optimise 1 character case
            char sep = separatorChars.charAt(0);
            while (i < len) {
                if (str.charAt(i) == sep) {
                    if (match) {
                        if (sizePlus1++ == max) {
                            i = len;
                        }
                        list.add(str.substring(start, i));
                        match = false;
                    }
                    start = ++i;
                    continue;
                }
                match = true;
                i++;
            }
        } else {
            // standard case
            while (i < len) {
                if (separatorChars.indexOf(str.charAt(i)) >= 0) {
                    if (match) {
                        if (sizePlus1++ == max) {
                            i = len;
                        }
                        list.add(str.substring(start, i));
                        match = false;
                    }
                    start = ++i;
                    continue;
                }
                match = true;
                i++;
            }
        }
        if (match) {
            list.add(str.substring(start, i));
        }
        return (String[]) list.toArray(new String[list.size()]);
    }

    // Joining
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Concatenates elements of an array into a single String.
     * Null objects or empty strings within the array are represented by 
     * empty strings.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.concatenate(null)            = null
     * StringUtils.concatenate([])              = ""
     * StringUtils.concatenate([null])          = ""
     * StringUtils.concatenate(["a", "b", "c"]) = "abc"
     * StringUtils.concatenate([null, "", "a"]) = "a"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param array  the array of values to concatenate, may be null
     * @return the concatenated String, <code>null</code> if null array input
     * @deprecated Use the better named {@link #join(Object[])} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02155     public static String concatenate(Object[] array) {
        return join(array, null);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided array into a single String
     * containing the provided list of elements.</p>
     *
     * <p>No separator is added to the joined String.
     * Null objects or empty strings within the array are represented by 
     * empty strings.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.join(null)            = null
     * StringUtils.join([])              = ""
     * StringUtils.join([null])          = ""
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"]) = "abc"
     * StringUtils.join([null, "", "a"]) = "a"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param array  the array of values to join together, may be null
     * @return the joined String, <code>null</code> if null array input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02179     public static String join(Object[] array) {
        return join(array, null);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided array into a single String
     * containing the provided list of elements.</p>
     *
     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list.
     * Null objects or empty strings within the array are represented by 
     * empty strings.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.join(null, *)               = null
     * StringUtils.join([], *)                 = ""
     * StringUtils.join([null], *)             = ""
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"], ';')  = "a;b;c"
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"], null) = "abc"
     * StringUtils.join([null, "", "a"], ';')  = ";;a"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param array  the array of values to join together, may be null
     * @param separator  the separator character to use
     * @return the joined String, <code>null</code> if null array input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02205     public static String join(Object[] array, char separator) {
        if (array == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int arraySize = array.length;
        int bufSize = (arraySize == 0 ? 0 : ((array[0] == null ? 16 : array[0].toString().length()) + 1) * arraySize);
        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(bufSize);

        for (int i = 0; i < arraySize; i++) {
            if (i > 0) {
                buf.append(separator);
            }
            if (array[i] != null) {
                buf.append(array[i]);
            }
        }
        return buf.toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided array into a single String
     * containing the provided list of elements.</p>
     *
     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list.
     * A <code>null</code> separator is the same as an empty String (""). 
     * Null objects or empty strings within the array are represented by 
     * empty strings.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.join(null, *)                = null
     * StringUtils.join([], *)                  = ""
     * StringUtils.join([null], *)              = ""
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"], "--")  = "a--b--c"
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"], null)  = "abc"
     * StringUtils.join(["a", "b", "c"], "")    = "abc"
     * StringUtils.join([null, "", "a"], ',')   = ",,a"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param array  the array of values to join together, may be null
     * @param separator  the separator character to use, null treated as ""
     * @return the joined String, <code>null</code> if null array input
     */
02247     public static String join(Object[] array, String separator) {
        if (array == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (separator == null) {
            separator = EMPTY;
        }
        int arraySize = array.length;

        // ArraySize ==  0: Len = 0
        // ArraySize > 0:   Len = NofStrings *(len(firstString) + len(separator))
        //           (Assuming that all Strings are roughly equally long)
        int bufSize 
            = ((arraySize == 0) ? 0 
                : arraySize * ((array[0] == null ? 16 : array[0].toString().length()) 
                    + ((separator != null) ? separator.length(): 0)));

        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(bufSize);

        for (int i = 0; i < arraySize; i++) {
            if ((separator != null) && (i > 0)) {
                buf.append(separator);
            }
            if (array[i] != null) {
                buf.append(array[i]);
            }
        }
        return buf.toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided <code>Iterator</code> into
     * a single String containing the provided elements.</p>
     *
     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list. Null objects or empty 
     * strings within the iteration are represented by empty strings.</p>
     *
     * <p>See the examples here: {@link #join(Object[],char)}. </p>
     *
     * @param iterator  the <code>Iterator</code> of values to join together, may be null
     * @param separator  the separator character to use
     * @return the joined String, <code>null</code> if null iterator input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02291     public static String join(Iterator iterator, char separator) {
        if (iterator == null) {
            return null;
        }
        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(256);  // Java default is 16, probably too small
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Object obj = iterator.next();
            if (obj != null) {
                buf.append(obj);
            }
            if (iterator.hasNext()) {
                buf.append(separator);
            }
        }
        return buf.toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Joins the elements of the provided <code>Iterator</code> into
     * a single String containing the provided elements.</p>
     *
     * <p>No delimiter is added before or after the list.
     * A <code>null</code> separator is the same as an empty String ("").</p>
     *
     * <p>See the examples here: {@link #join(Object[],String)}. </p>
     *
     * @param iterator  the <code>Iterator</code> of values to join together, may be null
     * @param separator  the separator character to use, null treated as ""
     * @return the joined String, <code>null</code> if null iterator input
     */
02321     public static String join(Iterator iterator, String separator) {
        if (iterator == null) {
            return null;
        }
        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(256);  // Java default is 16, probably too small
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Object obj = iterator.next();
            if (obj != null) {
                buf.append(obj);
            }
            if ((separator != null) && iterator.hasNext()) {
                buf.append(separator);
            }
         }
        return buf.toString();
    }

    // Delete
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Deletes all 'space' characters from a String as defined by
     * {@link Character#isSpace(char)}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>This is the only StringUtils method that uses the 
     * <code>isSpace</code> definition. You are advised to use
     * {@link #deleteWhitespace(String)} instead as whitespace is much
     * better localized.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces(null)           = null
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces("")             = ""
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces("abc")          = "abc"
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces(" \t  abc \n ") = "abc"
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces("ab  c")        = "abc"
     * StringUtils.deleteSpaces("a\nb\tc     ") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * <p>Spaces are defined as <code>{' ', '\t', '\r', '\n', '\b'}</code>
     * in line with the deprecated <code>isSpace</code> method.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to delete spaces from, may be null
     * @return the String without 'spaces', <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @deprecated Use the better localized {@link #deleteWhitespace(String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02366     public static String deleteSpaces(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return CharSetUtils.delete(str, " \t\r\n\b");
    }

    /**
     * <p>Deletes all whitespaces from a String as defined by
     * {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.deleteWhitespace(null)         = null
     * StringUtils.deleteWhitespace("")           = ""
     * StringUtils.deleteWhitespace("abc")        = "abc"
     * StringUtils.deleteWhitespace("   ab  c  ") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     *  
     * @param str  the String to delete whitespace from, may be null
     * @return the String without whitespaces, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02387     public static String deleteWhitespace(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(sz);
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if (!Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(i))) {
                buffer.append(str.charAt(i));
            }
        }
        return buffer.toString();
    }

    // Replacing
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Replaces a String with another String inside a larger String, once.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce(null, *, *)        = null
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("", *, *)          = ""
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("aba", null, null) = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("aba", null, null) = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("aba", "a", null)  = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("aba", "a", "")    = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replaceOnce("aba", "a", "z")   = "zba"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @see #replace(String text, String repl, String with, int max)
     * @param text  text to search and replace in, may be null
     * @param repl  the String to search for, may be null
     * @param with  the String to replace with, may be null
     * @return the text with any replacements processed,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02425     public static String replaceOnce(String text, String repl, String with) {
        return replace(text, repl, with, 1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Replaces all occurances of a String within another String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.replace(null, *, *)        = null
     * StringUtils.replace("", *, *)          = ""
     * StringUtils.replace("aba", null, null) = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replace("aba", null, null) = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replace("aba", "a", null)  = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replace("aba", "a", "")    = "aba"
     * StringUtils.replace("aba", "a", "z")   = "zbz"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @see #replace(String text, String repl, String with, int max)
     * @param text  text to search and replace in, may be null
     * @param repl  the String to search for, may be null
     * @param with  the String to replace with, may be null
     * @return the text with any replacements processed,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02451     public static String replace(String text, String repl, String with) {
        return replace(text, repl, with, -1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Replaces a String with another String inside a larger String,
     * for the first <code>max</code> values of the search String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> reference passed to this method is a no-op.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.replace(null, *, *, *)         = null
     * StringUtils.replace("", *, *, *)           = ""
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", null, null, 1) = "abaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", null, null, 1) = "abaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", null, 1)  = "abaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", "", 1)    = "abaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", "z", 0)   = "abaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", "z", 1)   = "zbaa"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", "z", 2)   = "zbza"
     * StringUtils.replace("abaa", "a", "z", -1)  = "zbzz"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param text  text to search and replace in, may be null
     * @param repl  the String to search for, may be null
     * @param with  the String to replace with, may be null
     * @param max  maximum number of values to replace, or <code>-1</code> if no maximum
     * @return the text with any replacements processed,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02481     public static String replace(String text, String repl, String with, int max) {
        if (text == null || repl == null || with == null || repl.length() == 0 || max == 0) {
            return text;
        }

        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(text.length());
        int start = 0, end = 0;
        while ((end = text.indexOf(repl, start)) != -1) {
            buf.append(text.substring(start, end)).append(with);
            start = end + repl.length();

            if (--max == 0) {
                break;
            }
        }
        buf.append(text.substring(start));
        return buf.toString();
    }
    
    // Replace, character based
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Replaces all occurrances of a character in a String with another.
     * This is a null-safe version of {@link String#replace(char, char)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input returns <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input returns an empty string.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.replaceChars(null, *, *)        = null
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("", *, *)          = ""
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abcba", 'b', 'y') = "aycya"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abcba", 'z', 'y') = "abcba"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  String to replace characters in, may be null
     * @param searchChar  the character to search for, may be null
     * @param replaceChar  the character to replace, may be null
     * @return modified String, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02522     public static String replaceChars(String str, char searchChar, char replaceChar) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return str.replace(searchChar, replaceChar);
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Replaces multiple characters in a String in one go.
     * This method can also be used to delete characters.</p>
     *
     * <p>For example:<br />
     * <code>replaceChars(&quot;hello&quot;, &quot;ho&quot;, &quot;jy&quot;) = jelly</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input returns <code>null</code>.
     * An empty ("") string input returns an empty string.
     * A null or empty set of search characters returns the input string.</p>
     * 
     * <p>The length of the search characters should normally equal the length
     * of the replace characters.
     * If the search characters is longer, then the extra search characters
     * are deleted.
     * If the search characters is shorter, then the extra replace characters
     * are ignored.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.replaceChars(null, *, *)           = null
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("", *, *)             = ""
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abc", null, *)       = "abc"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abc", "", *)         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abc", "b", null)     = "ac"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abc", "b", "")       = "ac"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abcba", "bc", "yz")  = "ayzya"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abcba", "bc", "y")   = "ayya"
     * StringUtils.replaceChars("abcba", "bc", "yzx") = "ayzya"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  String to replace characters in, may be null
     * @param searchChars  a set of characters to search for, may be null
     * @param replaceChars  a set of characters to replace, may be null
     * @return modified String, <code>null</code> if null string input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02565     public static String replaceChars(String str, String searchChars, String replaceChars) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || searchChars == null || searchChars.length()== 0) {
            return str;
        }
        char[] chars = str.toCharArray();
        int len = chars.length;
        boolean modified = false;
        for (int i = 0, isize = searchChars.length(); i < isize; i++) {
            char searchChar = searchChars.charAt(i);
            if (replaceChars == null || i >= replaceChars.length()) {
                // delete
                int pos = 0;
                for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
                    if (chars[j] != searchChar) {
                        chars[pos++] = chars[j];
                    } else {
                        modified = true;
                    }
                }
                len = pos;
            } else {
                // replace
                for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
                    if (chars[j] == searchChar) {
                        chars[j] = replaceChars.charAt(i);
                        modified = true;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        if (modified == false) {
            return str;
        }
        return new String(chars, 0, len);
    }

    // Overlay
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Overlays part of a String with another String.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.overlayString(null, *, *, *)           = NullPointerException
     * StringUtils.overlayString(*, null, *, *)           = NullPointerException
     * StringUtils.overlayString("", "abc", 0, 0)         = "abc"
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", null, 2, 4)    = "abef"
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", "", 2, 4)      = "abef"
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", "zzzz", 2, 4)  = "abzzzzef"
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", "zzzz", 4, 2)  = "abcdzzzzcdef"
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", "zzzz", -1, 4) = IndexOutOfBoundsException
     * StringUtils.overlayString("abcdef", "zzzz", 2, 8)  = IndexOutOfBoundsException
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param text  the String to do overlaying in, may be null
     * @param overlay  the String to overlay, may be null
     * @param start  the position to start overlaying at, must be valid
     * @param end  the position to stop overlaying before, must be valid
     * @return overlayed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @throws NullPointerException if text or overlay is null
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if either position is invalid
     * @deprecated Use better named {@link #overlay(String, String, int, int)} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02628     public static String overlayString(String text, String overlay, int start, int end) {
        return new StringBuffer(start + overlay.length() + text.length() - end + 1)
            .append(text.substring(0, start))
            .append(overlay)
            .append(text.substring(end))
            .toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Overlays part of a String with another String.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> string input returns <code>null</code>.
     * A negative index is treated as zero.
     * An index greater than the string length is treated as the string length.
     * The start index is always the smaller of the two indices.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.overlay(null, *, *, *)            = null
     * StringUtils.overlay("", "abc", 0, 0)          = "abc"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", null, 2, 4)     = "abef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "", 2, 4)       = "abef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "", 4, 2)       = "abef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", 2, 4)   = "abzzzzef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", 4, 2)   = "abzzzzef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", -1, 4)  = "zzzzef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", 2, 8)   = "abzzzz"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", -2, -3) = "zzzzabcdef"
     * StringUtils.overlay("abcdef", "zzzz", 8, 10)  = "abcdefzzzz"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to do overlaying in, may be null
     * @param overlay  the String to overlay, may be null
     * @param start  the position to start overlaying at
     * @param end  the position to stop overlaying before
     * @return overlayed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
02665     public static String overlay(String str, String overlay, int start, int end) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (overlay == null) {
            overlay = EMPTY;
        }
        int len = str.length();
        if (start < 0) {
            start = 0;
        }
        if (start > len) {
            start = len;
        }
        if (end < 0) {
            end = 0;
        }
        if (end > len) {
            end = len;
        }
        if (start > end) {
            int temp = start;
            start = end;
            end = temp;
        }
        return new StringBuffer(len + start - end + overlay.length() + 1)
            .append(str.substring(0, start))
            .append(overlay)
            .append(str.substring(end))
            .toString();
    }

    // Chomping
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Removes one newline from end of a String if it's there,
     * otherwise leave it alone.  A newline is &quot;<code>\n</code>&quot;,
     * &quot;<code>\r</code>&quot;, or &quot;<code>\r\n</code>&quot;.</p>
     *
     * <p>NOTE: This method changed in 2.0.
     * It now more closely matches Perl chomp.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.chomp(null)          = null
     * StringUtils.chomp("")            = ""
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc \r")      = "abc "
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc\n")       = "abc"
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc\r\n")     = "abc"
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc\r\n\r\n") = "abc\r\n"
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc\n\r")     = "abc\n"
     * StringUtils.chomp("abc\n\rabc")  = "abc\n\rabc"
     * StringUtils.chomp("\r")          = ""
     * StringUtils.chomp("\n")          = ""
     * StringUtils.chomp("\r\n")        = ""
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chomp a newline from, may be null
     * @return String without newline, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02724     public static String chomp(String str) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }

        if (str.length() == 1) {
            char ch = str.charAt(0);
            if (ch == '\r' || ch == '\n') {
                return EMPTY;
            } else {
                return str;
            }
        }

        int lastIdx = str.length() - 1;
        char last = str.charAt(lastIdx);

        if (last == '\n') {
            if (str.charAt(lastIdx - 1) == '\r') {
                lastIdx--;
            }
        } else if (last == '\r') {

        } else {
            lastIdx++;
        }
        return str.substring(0, lastIdx);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Removes <code>separator</code> from the end of
     * <code>str</code> if it's there, otherwise leave it alone.</p>
     *
     * <p>NOTE: This method changed in version 2.0.
     * It now more closely matches Perl chomp.
     * For the previous behavior, use {@link #substringBeforeLast(String, String)}.
     * This method uses {@link String#endsWith(String)}.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.chomp(null, *)         = null
     * StringUtils.chomp("", *)           = ""
     * StringUtils.chomp("foobar", "bar") = "foo"
     * StringUtils.chomp("foobar", "baz") = "foobar"
     * StringUtils.chomp("foo", "foo")    = ""
     * StringUtils.chomp("foo ", "foo")   = "foo"
     * StringUtils.chomp(" foo", "foo")   = " "
     * StringUtils.chomp("foo", "foooo")  = "foo"
     * StringUtils.chomp("foo", "")       = "foo"
     * StringUtils.chomp("foo", null)     = "foo"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, may be null
     * @param separator  separator String, may be null
     * @return String without trailing separator, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02779     public static String chomp(String str, String separator) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || separator == null) {
            return str;
        }
        if (str.endsWith(separator)) {
            return str.substring(0, str.length() - separator.length());
        }
        return str;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Remove any &quot;\n&quot; if and only if it is at the end
     * of the supplied String.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, must not be null
     * @return String without chomped ending
     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #chomp(String)} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02799     public static String chompLast(String str) {
        return chompLast(str, "\n");
    }
    
    /**
     * <p>Remove a value if and only if the String ends with that value.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, must not be null
     * @param sep  the String to chomp, must not be null
     * @return String without chomped ending
     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #chomp(String,String)} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02813     public static String chompLast(String str, String sep) {
        if (str.length() == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        String sub = str.substring(str.length() - sep.length());
        if (sep.equals(sub)) {
            return str.substring(0, str.length() - sep.length());
        } else {
            return str;
        }
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Remove everything and return the last value of a supplied String, and
     * everything after it from a String.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, must not be null
     * @param sep  the String to chomp, must not be null
     * @return String chomped
     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #substringAfterLast(String, String)} instead
     *             (although this doesn't include the separator)
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02837     public static String getChomp(String str, String sep) {
        int idx = str.lastIndexOf(sep);
        if (idx == str.length() - sep.length()) {
            return sep;
        } else if (idx != -1) {
            return str.substring(idx);
        } else {
            return EMPTY;
        }
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Remove the first value of a supplied String, and everything before it
     * from a String.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, must not be null
     * @param sep  the String to chomp, must not be null
     * @return String without chomped beginning
     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #substringAfter(String,String)} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02859     public static String prechomp(String str, String sep) {
        int idx = str.indexOf(sep);
        if (idx != -1) {
            return str.substring(idx + sep.length());
        } else {
            return str;
        }
    }

    /** 
     * <p>Remove and return everything before the first value of a
     * supplied String from another String.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chomp from, must not be null
     * @param sep  the String to chomp, must not be null
     * @return String prechomped
     * @throws NullPointerException if str or sep is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #substringBefore(String,String)} instead
     *             (although this doesn't include the separator).
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02880     public static String getPrechomp(String str, String sep) {
        int idx = str.indexOf(sep);
        if (idx != -1) {
            return str.substring(0, idx + sep.length());
        } else {
            return EMPTY;
        }
    }

    // Chopping
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Remove the last character from a String.</p>
     *
     * <p>If the String ends in <code>\r\n</code>, then remove both
     * of them.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.chop(null)          = null
     * StringUtils.chop("")            = ""
     * StringUtils.chop("abc \r")      = "abc "
     * StringUtils.chop("abc\n")       = "abc"
     * StringUtils.chop("abc\r\n")     = "abc"
     * StringUtils.chop("abc")         = "ab"
     * StringUtils.chop("abc\nabc")    = "abc\nab"
     * StringUtils.chop("a")           = ""
     * StringUtils.chop("\r")          = ""
     * StringUtils.chop("\n")          = ""
     * StringUtils.chop("\r\n")        = ""
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chop last character from, may be null
     * @return String without last character, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
02914     public static String chop(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int strLen = str.length();
        if (strLen < 2) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        int lastIdx = strLen - 1;
        String ret = str.substring(0, lastIdx);
        char last = str.charAt(lastIdx);
        if (last == '\n') {
            if (ret.charAt(lastIdx - 1) == '\r') {
                return ret.substring(0, lastIdx - 1);
            }
        }
        return ret;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Removes <code>\n</code> from end of a String if it's there.
     * If a <code>\r</code> precedes it, then remove that too.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to chop a newline from, must not be null
     * @return String without newline
     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link #chomp(String)} instead.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
02943     public static String chopNewline(String str) {
        int lastIdx = str.length() - 1;
        if (lastIdx <= 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        char last = str.charAt(lastIdx);
        if (last == '\n') {
            if (str.charAt(lastIdx - 1) == '\r') {
                lastIdx--;
            }
        } else {
            lastIdx++;
        }
        return str.substring(0, lastIdx);
    }


    // Conversion
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Escapes any values it finds into their String form.</p>
     *
     * <p>So a tab becomes the characters <code>'\\'</code> and
     * <code>'t'</code>.</p>
     *
     * <p>As of Lang 2.0, this calls {@link StringEscapeUtils#escapeJava(String)}
     * behind the scenes.
     * </p>
     * @see StringEscapeUtils#escapeJava(java.lang.String)
     * @param str String to escape values in
     * @return String with escaped values
     * @throws NullPointerException if str is <code>null</code>
     * @deprecated Use {@link StringEscapeUtils#escapeJava(String)}
     *             This method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0
     */
02978     public static String escape(String str) {
        return StringEscapeUtils.escapeJava(str);
    }

    // Padding
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Repeat a String <code>repeat</code> times to form a
     * new String.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.repeat(null, 2) = null
     * StringUtils.repeat("", 0)   = ""
     * StringUtils.repeat("", 2)   = ""
     * StringUtils.repeat("a", 3)  = "aaa"
     * StringUtils.repeat("ab", 2) = "abab"
     * StringUtils.repeat("a", -2) = ""
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to repeat, may be null
     * @param repeat  number of times to repeat str, negative treated as zero
     * @return a new String consisting of the original String repeated,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03002     public static String repeat(String str, int repeat) {
        // Performance tuned for 2.0 (JDK1.4)
        
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (repeat <= 0) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        int inputLength = str.length();
        if (repeat == 1 || inputLength == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        if (inputLength == 1 && repeat <= PAD_LIMIT) {
           return padding(repeat, str.charAt(0));
        }

        int outputLength = inputLength * repeat;
        switch (inputLength) {
            case 1:
                char ch = str.charAt(0);
                char[] output1 = new char[outputLength];
                for (int i = repeat - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                    output1[i] = ch;
                }
                return new String(output1);
            case 2:
                char ch0 = str.charAt(0);
                char ch1 = str.charAt(1);
                char[] output2 = new char[outputLength];
                for (int i = repeat * 2 - 2; i >= 0; i--,i--) {
                    output2[i] = ch0;
                    output2[i + 1] = ch1;
                }
                return new String(output2);
            default:
                StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(outputLength);
                for (int i = 0; i < repeat; i++) {
                    buf.append(str);
                }        
                return buf.toString();
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Returns padding using the specified delimiter repeated
     * to a given length.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.padding(0, 'e')  = ""
     * StringUtils.padding(3, 'e')  = "eee"
     * StringUtils.padding(-2, 'e') = IndexOutOfBoundsException
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param repeat  number of times to repeat delim
     * @param padChar  character to repeat
     * @return String with repeated character
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if <code>repeat &lt; 0</code>
     */
03061     private static String padding(int repeat, char padChar) {
        // be careful of synchronization in this method
        // we are assuming that get and set from an array index is atomic
        String pad = PADDING[padChar];
        if (pad == null) {
            pad = String.valueOf(padChar);
        }
        while (pad.length() < repeat) {
            pad = pad.concat(pad);
        }
        PADDING[padChar] = pad;
        return pad.substring(0, repeat);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Right pad a String with spaces (' ').</p>
     *
     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>size</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.rightPad(null, *)   = null
     * StringUtils.rightPad("", 3)     = "   "
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 3)  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 5)  = "bat  "
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 1)  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", -1) = "bat"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @return right padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03094     public static String rightPad(String str, int size) {
        return rightPad(str, size, ' ');
    }

    /**
     * <p>Right pad a String with a specified character.</p>
     *
     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>size</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.rightPad(null, *, *)     = null
     * StringUtils.rightPad("", 3, 'z')     = "zzz"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 3, 'z')  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 5, 'z')  = "batzz"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 1, 'z')  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", -1, 'z') = "bat"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @param padChar  the character to pad with
     * @return right padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
03119     public static String rightPad(String str, int size, char padChar) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int pads = size - str.length();
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str; // returns original String when possible
        }
        if (pads > PAD_LIMIT) {
            return rightPad(str, size, String.valueOf(padChar));
        }
        return str.concat(padding(pads, padChar));
    }

    /**
     * <p>Right pad a String with a specified String.</p>
     *
     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>size</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.rightPad(null, *, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.rightPad("", 3, "z")      = "zzz"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 3, "yz")  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 5, "yz")  = "batyz"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 8, "yz")  = "batyzyzy"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 1, "yz")  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", -1, "yz") = "bat"
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 5, null)  = "bat  "
     * StringUtils.rightPad("bat", 5, "")    = "bat  "
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @param padStr  the String to pad with, null or empty treated as single space
     * @return right padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03156     public static String rightPad(String str, int size, String padStr) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (padStr == null || padStr.length() == 0) {
            padStr = " ";
        }
        int padLen = padStr.length();
        int strLen = str.length();
        int pads = size - strLen;
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str; // returns original String when possible
        }
        if (padLen == 1 && pads <= PAD_LIMIT) {
            return rightPad(str, size, padStr.charAt(0));
        }
        
        if (pads == padLen) {
            return str.concat(padStr);
        } else if (pads < padLen) {
            return str.concat(padStr.substring(0, pads));
        } else {
            char[] padding = new char[pads];
            char[] padChars = padStr.toCharArray();
            for (int i = 0; i < pads; i++) {
                padding[i] = padChars[i % padLen];
            }
            return str.concat(new String(padding));
        }
    }

    /**
     * <p>Left pad a String with spaces (' ').</p>
     *
     * <p>The String is padded to the size of <code>size<code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.leftPad(null, *)   = null
     * StringUtils.leftPad("", 3)     = "   "
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 3)  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 5)  = "  bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 1)  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", -1) = "bat"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @return left padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03206     public static String leftPad(String str, int size) {
        return leftPad(str, size, ' ');        
    }

    /**
     * <p>Left pad a String with a specified character.</p>
     *
     * <p>Pad to a size of <code>size</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.leftPad(null, *, *)     = null
     * StringUtils.leftPad("", 3, 'z')     = "zzz"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 3, 'z')  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 5, 'z')  = "zzbat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 1, 'z')  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", -1, 'z') = "bat"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @param padChar  the character to pad with
     * @return left padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
03231     public static String leftPad(String str, int size, char padChar) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        int pads = size - str.length();
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str; // returns original String when possible
        }
        if (pads > PAD_LIMIT) {
            return leftPad(str, size, String.valueOf(padChar));
        }
        return padding(pads, padChar).concat(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Left pad a String with a specified String.</p>
     *
     * <p>Pad to a size of <code>size</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.leftPad(null, *, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.leftPad("", 3, "z")      = "zzz"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 3, "yz")  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 5, "yz")  = "yzbat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 8, "yz")  = "yzyzybat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 1, "yz")  = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", -1, "yz") = "bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 5, null)  = "  bat"
     * StringUtils.leftPad("bat", 5, "")    = "  bat"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to pad out, may be null
     * @param size  the size to pad to
     * @param padStr  the String to pad with, null or empty treated as single space
     * @return left padded String or original String if no padding is necessary,
     *  <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03268     public static String leftPad(String str, int size, String padStr) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (padStr == null || padStr.length() == 0) {
            padStr = " ";
        }
        int padLen = padStr.length();
        int strLen = str.length();
        int pads = size - strLen;
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str; // returns original String when possible
        }
        if (padLen == 1 && pads <= PAD_LIMIT) {
            return leftPad(str, size, padStr.charAt(0));
        }
        
        if (pads == padLen) {
            return padStr.concat(str);
        } else if (pads < padLen) {
            return padStr.substring(0, pads).concat(str);
        } else {
            char[] padding = new char[pads];
            char[] padChars = padStr.toCharArray();
            for (int i = 0; i < pads; i++) {
                padding[i] = padChars[i % padLen];
            }
            return new String(padding).concat(str);
        }
    }

    // Centering
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Centers a String in a larger String of size <code>size</code>
     * using the space character (' ').<p>
     * 
     * <p>If the size is less than the String length, the String is returned.
     * A <code>null</code> String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A negative size is treated as zero.</p>
     *
     * <p>Equivalent to <code>center(str, size, " ")</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.center(null, *)   = null
     * StringUtils.center("", 4)     = "    "
     * StringUtils.center("ab", -1)  = "ab"
     * StringUtils.center("ab", 4)   = " ab "
     * StringUtils.center("abcd", 2) = "abcd"
     * StringUtils.center("a", 4)    = " a  "
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to center, may be null
     * @param size  the int size of new String, negative treated as zero
     * @return centered String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03324     public static String center(String str, int size) {
        return center(str, size, ' ');
    }

    /**
     * <p>Centers a String in a larger String of size <code>size</code>.
     * Uses a supplied character as the value to pad the String with.</p>
     *
     * <p>If the size is less than the String length, the String is returned.
     * A <code>null</code> String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A negative size is treated as zero.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.center(null, *, *)     = null
     * StringUtils.center("", 4, ' ')     = "    "
     * StringUtils.center("ab", -1, ' ')  = "ab"
     * StringUtils.center("ab", 4, ' ')   = " ab"
     * StringUtils.center("abcd", 2, ' ') = "abcd"
     * StringUtils.center("a", 4, ' ')    = " a  "
     * StringUtils.center("a", 4, 'y')    = "yayy"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to center, may be null
     * @param size  the int size of new String, negative treated as zero
     * @param padChar  the character to pad the new String with
     * @return centered String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
03352     public static String center(String str, int size, char padChar) {
        if (str == null || size <= 0) {
            return str;
        }
        int strLen = str.length();
        int pads = size - strLen;
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str;
        }
        str = leftPad(str, strLen + pads / 2, padChar);
        str = rightPad(str, size, padChar);
        return str;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Centers a String in a larger String of size <code>size</code>.
     * Uses a supplied String as the value to pad the String with.</p>
     *
     * <p>If the size is less than the String length, the String is returned.
     * A <code>null</code> String returns <code>null</code>.
     * A negative size is treated as zero.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.center(null, *, *)     = null
     * StringUtils.center("", 4, " ")     = "    "
     * StringUtils.center("ab", -1, " ")  = "ab"
     * StringUtils.center("ab", 4, " ")   = " ab"
     * StringUtils.center("abcd", 2, " ") = "abcd"
     * StringUtils.center("a", 4, " ")    = " a  "
     * StringUtils.center("a", 4, "yz")   = "yayz"
     * StringUtils.center("abc", 7, null) = "  abc  "
     * StringUtils.center("abc", 7, "")   = "  abc  "
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to center, may be null
     * @param size  the int size of new String, negative treated as zero
     * @param padStr  the String to pad the new String with, must not be null or empty
     * @return centered String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if padStr is <code>null</code> or empty
     */
03392     public static String center(String str, int size, String padStr) {
        if (str == null || size <= 0) {
            return str;
        }
        if (padStr == null || padStr.length() == 0) {
            padStr = " ";
        }
        int strLen = str.length();
        int pads = size - strLen;
        if (pads <= 0) {
            return str;
        }
        str = leftPad(str, strLen + pads / 2, padStr);
        str = rightPad(str, size, padStr);
        return str;
    }

    // Case conversion
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Converts a String to upper case as per {@link String#toUpperCase()}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.upperCase(null)  = null
     * StringUtils.upperCase("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.upperCase("aBc") = "ABC"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to upper case, may be null
     * @return the upper cased String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03425     public static String upperCase(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return str.toUpperCase();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Converts a String to lower case as per {@link String#toLowerCase()}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.lowerCase(null)  = null
     * StringUtils.lowerCase("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.lowerCase("aBc") = "abc"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to lower case, may be null
     * @return the lower cased String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03446     public static String lowerCase(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return str.toLowerCase();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Capitalizes a String changing the first letter to title case as
     * per {@link Character#toTitleCase(char)}. No other letters are changed.</p>
     * 
     * <p>For a word based alorithm, see {@link WordUtils#capitalize(String)}.
     * A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.capitalize(null)  = null
     * StringUtils.capitalize("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.capitalize("cat") = "Cat"
     * StringUtils.capitalize("cAt") = "CAt"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to capitalize, may be null
     * @return the capitalized String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @see WordUtils#capitalize(String)
     * @see #uncapitalize(String)
     * @since 2.0
     */
03473     public static String capitalize(String str) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        return new StringBuffer(strLen)
            .append(Character.toTitleCase(str.charAt(0)))
            .append(str.substring(1))
            .toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Capitalizes a String changing the first letter to title case as
     * per {@link Character#toTitleCase(char)}. No other letters are changed.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to capitalize, may be null
     * @return the capitalized String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @deprecated Use the standardly named {@link #capitalize(String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
03493     public static String capitalise(String str) {
        return capitalize(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Uncapitalizes a String changing the first letter to title case as
     * per {@link Character#toLowerCase(char)}. No other letters are changed.</p>
     * 
     * <p>For a word based alorithm, see {@link WordUtils#uncapitalize(String)}.
     * A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.uncapitalize(null)  = null
     * StringUtils.uncapitalize("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.uncapitalize("Cat") = "cat"
     * StringUtils.uncapitalize("CAT") = "cAT"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to uncapitalize, may be null
     * @return the uncapitalized String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @see WordUtils#uncapitalize(String)
     * @see #capitalize(String)
     * @since 2.0
     */
03517     public static String uncapitalize(String str) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        return new StringBuffer(strLen)
            .append(Character.toLowerCase(str.charAt(0)))
            .append(str.substring(1))
            .toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Uncapitalizes a String changing the first letter to title case as
     * per {@link Character#toLowerCase(char)}. No other letters are changed.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to uncapitalize, may be null
     * @return the uncapitalized String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @deprecated Use the standardly named {@link #uncapitalize(String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
03537     public static String uncapitalise(String str) {
        return uncapitalize(str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Swaps the case of a String changing upper and title case to
     * lower case, and lower case to upper case.</p>
     * 
     * <ul>
     *  <li>Upper case character converts to Lower case</li>
     *  <li>Title case character converts to Lower case</li>
     *  <li>Lower case character converts to Upper case</li>
     * </ul>
     * 
     * <p>For a word based alorithm, see {@link WordUtils#swapCase(String)}.
     * A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.swapCase(null)                 = null
     * StringUtils.swapCase("")                   = ""
     * StringUtils.swapCase("The dog has a BONE") = "tHE DOG HAS A bone"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * <p>NOTE: This method changed in Lang version 2.0.
     * It no longer performs a word based alorithm.
     * If you only use ASCII, you will notice no change.
     * That functionality is available in WordUtils.</p>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to swap case, may be null
     * @return the changed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03568     public static String swapCase(String str) {
        int strLen;
        if (str == null || (strLen = str.length()) == 0) {
            return str;
        }
        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(strLen);

        char ch = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < strLen; i++) {
            ch = str.charAt(i);
            if (Character.isUpperCase(ch)) {
                ch = Character.toLowerCase(ch);
            } else if (Character.isTitleCase(ch)) {
                ch = Character.toLowerCase(ch);
            } else if (Character.isLowerCase(ch)) {
                ch = Character.toUpperCase(ch);
            }
            buffer.append(ch);
        }
        return buffer.toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Capitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String.
     * Only the first letter of each word is changed.</p>
     *
     * <p>Whitespace is defined by {@link Character#isWhitespace(char)}.
     * A <code>null</code> input String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     *
     * @param str  the String to capitalize, may be null
     * @return capitalized String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @deprecated Use the relocated {@link WordUtils#capitalize(String)}.
     *             Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     */
03602     public static String capitaliseAllWords(String str) {
        return WordUtils.capitalize(str);
    }

    // Count matches
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Counts how many times the substring appears in the larger String.</p>
     *
     * <p>A <code>null</code> or empty ("") String input returns <code>0</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.countMatches(null, *)       = 0
     * StringUtils.countMatches("", *)         = 0
     * StringUtils.countMatches("abba", null)  = 0
     * StringUtils.countMatches("abba", "")    = 0
     * StringUtils.countMatches("abba", "a")   = 2
     * StringUtils.countMatches("abba", "ab")  = 1
     * StringUtils.countMatches("abba", "xxx") = 0
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param sub  the substring to count, may be null
     * @return the number of occurances, 0 if either String is <code>null</code>
     */
03627     public static int countMatches(String str, String sub) {
        if (str == null || str.length() == 0 || sub == null || sub.length() == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        int count = 0;
        int idx = 0;
        while ((idx = str.indexOf(sub, idx)) != -1) {
            count++;
            idx += sub.length();
        }
        return count;
    }

    // Character Tests
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isAlpha(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlpha("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isAlpha("  ")   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlpha("abc")  = true
     * StringUtils.isAlpha("ab2c") = false
     * StringUtils.isAlpha("ab-c") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters, and is non-null
     */
03660     public static boolean isAlpha(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if (Character.isLetter(str.charAt(i)) == false) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters and
     * space (' ').</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("  ")   = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("abc")  = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("ab c") = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("ab2c") = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphaSpace("ab-c") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters and space,
     *  and is non-null
     */
03694     public static boolean isAlphaSpace(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if ((Character.isLetter(str.charAt(i)) == false) &&
                (str.charAt(i) != ' ')) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters or digits.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("  ")   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("abc")  = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab c") = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab2c") = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab-c") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters or digits,
     *  and is non-null
     */
03728     public static boolean isAlphanumeric(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if (Character.isLetterOrDigit(str.charAt(i)) == false) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode letters, digits
     * or space (<code>' '</code>).</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("  ")   = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("abc")  = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab c") = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab2c") = true
     * StringUtils.isAlphanumeric("ab-c") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains letters, digits or space,
     *  and is non-null
     */
03762     public static boolean isAlphanumericSpace(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if ((Character.isLetterOrDigit(str.charAt(i)) == false) &&
                (str.charAt(i) != ' ')) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode digits.
     * A decimal point is not a unicode digit and returns false.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isNumeric(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("  ")   = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("123")  = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12 3") = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("ab2c") = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12-3") = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12.3") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains digits, and is non-null
     */
03797     public static boolean isNumeric(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if (Character.isDigit(str.charAt(i)) == false) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only unicode digits or space
     * (<code>' '</code>).
     * A decimal point is not a unicode digit and returns false.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isNumeric(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("  ")   = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("123")  = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12 3") = true
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("ab2c") = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12-3") = false
     * StringUtils.isNumeric("12.3") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains digits or space,
     *  and is non-null
     */
03833     public static boolean isNumericSpace(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if ((Character.isDigit(str.charAt(i)) == false) &&
                (str.charAt(i) != ' ')) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * <p>Checks if the String contains only whitespace.</p>
     *
     * <p><code>null</code> will return <code>false</code>.
     * An empty String ("") will return <code>true</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace(null)   = false
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace("")     = true
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace("  ")   = true
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace("abc")  = false
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace("ab2c") = false
     * StringUtils.isWhitespace("ab-c") = false
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return <code>true</code> if only contains whitespace, and is non-null
     * @since 2.0
     */
03866     public static boolean isWhitespace(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return false;
        }
        int sz = str.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++) {
            if ((Character.isWhitespace(str.charAt(i)) == false) ) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    // Defaults
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Returns either the passed in String, 
     * or if the String is <code>null</code>, an empty String ("").</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.defaultString(null)  = ""
     * StringUtils.defaultString("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.defaultString("bat") = "bat"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @see ObjectUtils#toString(Object)
     * @see String#valueOf(Object)
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @return the passed in String, or the empty String if it
     *  was <code>null</code>
     */
03897     public static String defaultString(String str) {
        return (str == null ? EMPTY : str);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Returns either the passed in String, 
     * or if the String is <code>null</code>, an empty String ("").</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.defaultString(null, "null")  = "null"
     * StringUtils.defaultString("", "null")    = ""
     * StringUtils.defaultString("bat", "null") = "bat"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @see ObjectUtils#toString(Object,String)
     * @see String#valueOf(Object)
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param defaultStr  the default String to return 
     *  if the input is <code>null</code>, may be null
     * @return the passed in String, or the default if it was <code>null</code>
     */
03918     public static String defaultString(String str, String defaultStr) {
        return (str == null ? defaultStr : str);
    }

    // Reversing
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Reverses a String as per {@link StringBuffer#reverse()}.</p>
     *
     * <p><A code>null</code> String returns <code>null</code>.</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.reverse(null)  = null
     * StringUtils.reverse("")    = ""
     * StringUtils.reverse("bat") = "tab"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to reverse, may be null
     * @return the reversed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     */
03938     public static String reverse(String str) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return new StringBuffer(str).reverse().toString();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Reverses a String that is delimited by a specific character.</p>
     *
     * <p>The Strings between the delimiters are not reversed.
     * Thus java.lang.String becomes String.lang.java (if the delimiter
     * is <code>'.'</code>).</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimited(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimited("", *)        = ""
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimited("a.b.c", 'x') = "a.b.c"
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimited("a.b.c", ".") = "c.b.a"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to reverse, may be null
     * @param separatorChar  the separator character to use
     * @return the reversed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @since 2.0
     */
03964     public static String reverseDelimited(String str, char separatorChar) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        // could implement manually, but simple way is to reuse other, 
        // probably slower, methods.
        String[] strs = split(str, separatorChar);
        ArrayUtils.reverse(strs);
        return join(strs, separatorChar);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Reverses a String that is delimited by a specific character.</p>
     *
     * <p>The Strings between the delimiters are not reversed.
     * Thus java.lang.String becomes String.lang.java (if the delimiter
     * is <code>"."</code>).</p>
     * 
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimitedString(null, *)       = null
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimitedString("",*)          = ""
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimitedString("a.b.c", null) = "a.b.c"
     * StringUtils.reverseDelimitedString("a.b.c", ".")  = "c.b.a"
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param str  the String to reverse, may be null
     * @param separatorChars  the separator characters to use, null treated as whitespace
     * @return the reversed String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @deprecated Use {@link #reverseDelimited(String, char)} instead.
     *      This method is broken as the join doesn't know which char to use.
     *      Method will be removed in Commons Lang 3.0.
     * 
     */
03997     public static String reverseDelimitedString(String str, String separatorChars) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        // could implement manually, but simple way is to reuse other, 
        // probably slower, methods.
        String[] strs = split(str, separatorChars);
        ArrayUtils.reverse(strs);
        if (separatorChars == null) {
            return join(strs, ' ');
        }
        return join(strs, separatorChars);
    }

    // Abbreviating
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Abbreviates a String using ellipses. This will turn 
     * "Now is the time for all good men" into "Now is the time for..."</p>
     *
     * <p>Specifically:
     * <ul>
     *   <li>If <code>str</code> is less than <code>maxWidth</code> characters
     *       long, return it.</li>
     *   <li>Else abbreviate it to <code>(substring(str, 0, max-3) + "...")</code>.</li>
     *   <li>If <code>maxWidth</code> is less than <code>4</code>, throw an
     *       <code>IllegalArgumentException</code>.</li>
     *   <li>In no case will it return a String of length greater than
     *       <code>maxWidth</code>.</li>
     * </ul>
     * </p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.abbreviate(null, *)      = null
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("", 4)        = ""
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefg", 6) = "abc..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefg", 7) = "abcdefg"
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefg", 8) = "abcdefg"
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefg", 4) = "a..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefg", 3) = IllegalArgumentException
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param maxWidth  maximum length of result String, must be at least 4
     * @return abbreviated String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width is too small
     * @since 2.0
     */
04045     public static String abbreviate(String str, int maxWidth) {
        return abbreviate(str, 0, maxWidth);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Abbreviates a String using ellipses. This will turn 
     * "Now is the time for all good men" into "...is the time for..."</p>
     *
     * <p>Works like <code>abbreviate(String, int)</code>, but allows you to specify
     * a "left edge" offset.  Note that this left edge is not necessarily going to
     * be the leftmost character in the result, or the first character following the
     * ellipses, but it will appear somewhere in the result.
     *
     * <p>In no case will it return a String of length greater than
     * <code>maxWidth</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.abbreviate(null, *, *)                = null
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("", 0, 4)                  = ""
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", -1, 10) = "abcdefg..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 0, 10)  = "abcdefg..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 1, 10)  = "abcdefg..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 4, 10)  = "abcdefg..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 5, 10)  = "...fghi..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 6, 10)  = "...ghij..."
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 8, 10)  = "...ijklmno"
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 10, 10) = "...ijklmno"
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghijklmno", 12, 10) = "...ijklmno"
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghij", 0, 3)        = IllegalArgumentException
     * StringUtils.abbreviate("abcdefghij", 5, 6)        = IllegalArgumentException
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str  the String to check, may be null
     * @param offset  left edge of source String
     * @param maxWidth  maximum length of result String, must be at least 4
     * @return abbreviated String, <code>null</code> if null String input
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width is too small
     * @since 2.0
     */
04084     public static String abbreviate(String str, int offset, int maxWidth) {
        if (str == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (maxWidth < 4) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Minimum abbreviation width is 4");
        }
        if (str.length() <= maxWidth) {
            return str;
        }
        if (offset > str.length()) {
            offset = str.length();
        }
        if ((str.length() - offset) < (maxWidth - 3)) {
            offset = str.length() - (maxWidth - 3);
        }
        if (offset <= 4) {
            return str.substring(0, maxWidth - 3) + "...";
        }
        if (maxWidth < 7) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Minimum abbreviation width with offset is 7");
        }
        if ((offset + (maxWidth - 3)) < str.length()) {
            return "..." + abbreviate(str.substring(offset), maxWidth - 3);
        }
        return "..." + str.substring(str.length() - (maxWidth - 3));
    }

    // Difference
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Compares two Strings, and returns the portion where they differ.
     * (More precisely, return the remainder of the second String,
     * starting from where it's different from the first.)</p>
     *
     * <p>For example,
     * <code>difference("i am a machine", "i am a robot") -> "robot"</code>.</p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.difference(null, null) = null
     * StringUtils.difference("", "") = ""
     * StringUtils.difference("", "abc") = "abc"
     * StringUtils.difference("abc", "") = ""
     * StringUtils.difference("abc", "abc") = ""
     * StringUtils.difference("ab", "abxyz") = "xyz"
     * StringUtils.difference("abcde", "abxyz") = "xyz"
     * StringUtils.difference("abcde", "xyz") = "xyz"
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str1  the first String, may be null
     * @param str2  the second String, may be null
     * @return the portion of str2 where it differs from str1; returns the 
     * empty String if they are equal
     * @since 2.0
     */
04139     public static String difference(String str1, String str2) {
        if (str1 == null) {
            return str2;
        }
        if (str2 == null) {
            return str1;
        }
        int at = indexOfDifference(str1, str2);
        if (at == -1) {
            return EMPTY;
        }
        return str2.substring(at);
    }

    /**
     * <p>Compares two Strings, and returns the index at which the
     * Strings begin to differ.</p>
     * 
     * <p>For example, 
     * <code>indexOfDifference("i am a machine", "i am a robot") -> 7</code></p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference(null, null) = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("", "") = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("", "abc") = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("abc", "") = 0
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("abc", "abc") = -1
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("ab", "abxyz") = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("abcde", "abxyz") = 2
     * StringUtils.indexOfDifference("abcde", "xyz") = 0
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param str1  the first String, may be null
     * @param str2  the second String, may be null
     * @return the index where str2 and str1 begin to differ; -1 if they are equal
     * @since 2.0
     */
04176     public static int indexOfDifference(String str1, String str2) {
        if (str1 == str2) {
            return -1;
        }
        if (str1 == null || str2 == null) {
            return 0;
        }
        int i;
        for (i = 0; i < str1.length() && i < str2.length(); ++i) {
            if (str1.charAt(i) != str2.charAt(i)) {
                break;
            }
        }
        if (i < str2.length() || i < str1.length()) {
            return i;
        }
        return -1;
    }


    // Misc
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * <p>Find the Levenshtein distance between two Strings.</p>
     *
     * <p>This is the number of changes needed to change one String into
     * another, where each change is a single character modification (deletion, 
     * insertion or substitution).</p>
     *
     * <p>This implementation of the Levenshtein distance algorithm
     * is from <a href="http://www.merriampark.com/ld.htm">http://www.merriampark.com/ld.htm</a></p>
     *
     * <pre>
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance(null, *)             = IllegalArgumentException
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance(*, null)             = IllegalArgumentException
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("","")               = 0
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("","a")              = 1
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("aaapppp", "")       = 7
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("frog", "fog")       = 1
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("fly", "ant")        = 3
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("elephant", "hippo") = 7
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("hippo", "elephant") = 7
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("hippo", "zzzzzzzz") = 8
     * StringUtils.getLevenshteinDistance("hello", "hallo")    = 1
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param s  the first String, must not be null
     * @param t  the second String, must not be null
     * @return result distance
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if either String input <code>null</code>
     */
04227     public static int getLevenshteinDistance(String s, String t) {
        if (s == null || t == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Strings must not be null");
        }
        int d[][]; // matrix
        int n; // length of s
        int m; // length of t
        int i; // iterates through s
        int j; // iterates through t
        char s_i; // ith character of s
        char t_j; // jth character of t
        int cost; // cost

        // Step 1
        n = s.length();
        m = t.length();
        if (n == 0) {
            return m;
        }
        if (m == 0) {
            return n;
        }
        d = new int[n + 1][m + 1];

        // Step 2
        for (i = 0; i <= n; i++) {
            d[i][0] = i;
        }

        for (j = 0; j <= m; j++) {
            d[0][j] = j;
        }

        // Step 3
        for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            s_i = s.charAt(i - 1);

            // Step 4
            for (j = 1; j <= m; j++) {
                t_j = t.charAt(j - 1);

                // Step 5
                if (s_i == t_j) {
                    cost = 0;
                } else {
                    cost = 1;
                }

                // Step 6
                d[i][j] = min(d[i - 1][j] + 1, d[i][j - 1] + 1, d[i - 1][j - 1] + cost);
            }
        }

        // Step 7
        return d[n][m];
    }

    /**
     * <p>Gets the minimum of three <code>int</code> values.</p>
     * 
     * @param a  value 1
     * @param b  value 2
     * @param c  value 3
     * @return  the smallest of the values
     */
04292     private static int min(int a, int b, int c) {
        // Method copied from NumberUtils to avoid dependency on subpackage
        if (b < a) {
            a = b;
        }
        if (c < a) {
            a = c;
        }
        return a;
    }

}


Generated by  Doxygen 1.6.0   Back to index